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Imperialism Googledocs Project  South Africa. South Africa. By Jon Hardy, Manny Acuna, Joshua Johnson. In 1652, the dutch established a provisions station at Cape Town.

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Imperialism Googledocs Project  South Africa

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Imperialism Googledocs Project  South Africa

South Africa

By Jon Hardy, Manny Acuna, Joshua Johnson

In 1652, the dutch established a provisions station at Cape Town.

They set the station up so that as other ships sailed around the tip of south africa to trade. The salesmen could stop by for fresh food and supplies.

Initial Occupation

(South Africa, 2011).

Later Germans, French Huguenots came for the same resources

Dutch farmers were known as Boers

The colonist themselves are called Afrikaners

Initial Occupation

(South Africa, 2011).

Causes for the Imperialization of South Africa

  • Economic Motives-  The Industrial Revolution created an insatiable demand for raw materials and new markets.

    (Thomas Caswell, 1999-2003.)

Pictures are from Google images

Causes for the Imperialization of South Africa

  • Nationalism-  European nations wanted to demonstrate their power and prestige to the world.

    (Thomas Caswell, 1999-2003.)

Pictures are from Google images

Causes for the Imperialization of South Africa

  • Balance of Power-  European nations were forced to acquire new colonies to achieve a balance with their neighbors and competitors.

    (Thomas Caswell, 1999-2003.)

Causes for the Imperialization of South Africa

  • White Man's Burden-  The Europeans’ sense of superiority made them feel obligated to “civilize the heathen savages” they encountered.

    (Thomas Caswell, 1999-2003.)

The main resources in South Africa during this time is GOLD and PLATINUM 

They are world's biggest producer of these resources 

(Republic of South, 2011).

Benefits to the Imperial Power

Zulu War - 1879

British provoked the war and defeated the last indigenous opposition to their expansion

(K. Mclaughlin, 2011.)

In order to imperialize that british needed to control as much of South Africa as possible. They did this by...

The Boers - 1899-1902 

British expand control through the entire region

(K. Mclaughlin, 2011.)

Treatment of Indigenous People

The Indigenous Perspective

The Khoikhoi were some of first indigenous people to trade and interact with early European settlers.  The relationship was strained because the settlers were trespassing on their land and their trading usually ended with conflict (Paton, 1990).

B. The Indigenous Perspective

Settlers tried to regulate indigenous land use, access 

to resources, and traditional practices.  To regulate the Africans' hunting practices, 

they even poisoned their 

hunting dogs (Tropp, 2002, 

p. 242).

The Indigenous Perspective

1799-1801: Khoe serfs able to escape Dutch farms joined Xhosa groups in a major offensive against colonialism (South Africa, 2011).

1808 and 1825: Slave rebellions on outskirts of Capetown (South Africa, 2011).

Basters, descendants of Europeans and Khoe refused citizenship and land rights, merged with Khoe groups and formed commando states under warlords.  In the early 19th century they became the Griqua (South Africa, 2011).

Resistance and Independence Movements

  • Resistance & Independence Movements 

  • The Anglo Zulu War:

    • Fought in 1879

    • lasted only six months

    • the British wanted to enslave the Zulus for mining

    •  The Zulus were quickly wiped out by the British guns

The South African Native National Congress (right) was founded in 1912. It became the African National Congress in 1923 (Paton, 1990).

Under Albert Luthuli, Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo and Nelson Mandela, ANC began a major movement against apartheid in the 1950s. ANC joined with the South African Indian Congress in a resistance campaign in 1952 (South Africa, 2011).

In 1955 the Congress of the People adopted the Freedom Charter, declaring that South Africa belonged to all who lived in it, black or white (South Africa, 2011).

Resistance and Independence Movements

PAC started an anti-pass law campaign  (South Africa, 2011). In 1960 at Sharpeville police opened fire on anti-pass demonstrators, killing 67 and wounding 189. They had refused to carry  passes (Thompson, 1990, p. 210).

ANC and PAC established  armed wings (Poqo and Umkhonto we Sizwe) in 1961 (South Africa, 2011).

Resistance and Independence Movements

  • The Pan African Congress, led by Robert Sobukwe,  broke with the ANC in 1959 because of its alliance with non-Africans (South Africa, 2011).

The Sharpeville Massacre

In 1961 South Africa gained independence from Great Britain (South Africa, 2011). 

South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth not long after that because of criticism of its racial policies (Proquest, 2011)

Resistance movements continued against the racist and repressive policies of apartheid.

Resistance and Independence Movements

1984-1994: Under President F.W. de Klerk, apartheid laws were repealed and voting rights extended to all racial and ethnic groups (South Africa, 2011).

In 1994 a black majority government was elected, with Nelson Mandela as president (South Africa, 2011).

Resistance and Independence Movements

There were no benefits to indigenous peoples as a result of colonial rule in South Africa.

Indigenous populations were decimated by disease, reduced to marginal areas, forced into indentured labor or slavery, and impoverished (South Africa, 2011; Paton, 1990).

Post-apartheid, their  living conditions have improved a little, with clean water and maybe electricity,  and health clinics, but indigenous cultures have been largely destroyed (Huschka and Mau, 2006).

Benefits to Indigenous People

Both colonial and apartheid governments used traditional tribal authorities to help them govern the interior of the country and administer development projects.  They deposed rebellious chiefs and rewarded cooperative ones. The post-apartheid government still uses those tribal structures (King, 2005).

Culture Imperialism

South Africa today is the land of the 'Rainbow People,' a mix of races and cultures striving for national pride and unity (Moller, Dickow, & Harris, 1999).

Culture Imperialism

During the colonial and post-colonial, apartheid eras, South Africa developed the best infrastructure in Africa, with excellent transportation and communication systems (Proquest, 2011).

South Africa has a diverse industrial base that includes wine export and tourism (Proquest, 2011).


Economic growth has slowed and unemployment is high, especially among nonwhite South Africans, whose standard of living is much lower than that of whites (ProQuest, 2011).   

Many black South Africans still live in conditions such as this Cape Town slum (ProQuest, 2011.


Legacy of Imperialism

South Africa had many resources, which the British thought would be useful for themselves, within the end of the 18th century the British gained control of the Cape of Good Hope.

1. Consequences on the Imperial Power

  • Britain's informal empire was aided by the Industrial Revolution, which provided the tools of Empire, such as the Gatling Gun, the railway, and the steamship. Making it easier to expand through the region. (British Gain Wealth, n.d.).

Ghandi's Peace

As early as 1906, Gandhi led the Indian community in South Africa in acts of passive resistance. In later years there were further passive resistance campaigns by the Indian community. (Gandhi in South, n.d.).

British were prejudiced towards the Africans, mostly showing unreasonable feelings, opinions, or attitudes, especially of a hostile nature towards them just for being different and believing in a different culture.

 System of Apartheid was meant to separate the races: not only of whites from nonwhites, but also of nonwhites from each other,

2. Consequences on the Occupied Region

  • and, among the Africans (called Bantu in South Africa), of one group from another.

    • South Africa became politically unstable due to the British conquiring all of they're lands. (Aparthied, n.d.).

South Africa

Literacy rate: 88.0%

GDP: $10,700 per person

HDI: Medium human Development, Ranked 110

Aids: Spreads rapidly, due to poor sexual education and sexual assaults.


Literacy rate: 99.0%

GDP: $35,000 per person

HDI: Very high human development, Ranked 26

Aids: Has a small epidemic. Around 0.1% of the population is infected. 

3.Modern Status

FIFA World Cup 2010

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