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Hydrology. Movement of Water Underground. USGS. Groundwater. Any water that is below the surface May be in soils or porous rocks Can be tapped for wells or supply artesian springs. Click on image to view a groundwater animation .

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hydrology

Hydrology

Movement of WaterUnderground

USGS

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

groundwater
Groundwater
  • Any water that is below the surface
  • May be in soils or porous rocks
  • Can be tapped for wells or supply artesian springs

Click on image to view

a groundwater animation

http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/groundwater/index.html

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

slide3

Sediment Size Classifications

256 cm Boulder

64 cm Cobble

2 mm Pebble Gravel

0.0062 mm Sand

0.0039 mm Silt Mud

Clay

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

physical properties of sediments and water flow pore space
Physical Properties of Sediments and Water Flow – Pore Space
  • Unoccupied or void space between sediment particles
  • Can be filled with air or water
  • Measured by packing solid in a container to measure the total volume; water is added just to the surface filling the empty space

added water = pore space

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

physical properties of sediments and water flow pore space5
Physical Properties of Sediments and Water Flow – Pore Space
  • If particles are round and the same size they will pack a certain way leaving a regular pore space.
  • If this is the case, the pore space does not depend on the particle size. The larger the particles, the larger but fewer the spaces. For smaller particles, there are more but smaller spaces.

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

physical properties of sediments and water flow pore space6
Physical Properties of Sediments and Water Flow – Pore Space

More but smaller spaces

Larger but fewer spaces

Mixed – less

empty space

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

http://techalive.mtu.edu/meec/module06/Packing.htm

physical properties of sediments and water flow pore space7
Physical Properties of Sediments and Water Flow – Pore Space

Larger but fewer spaces

Most sediments are not regular in shape and pack more

tightly. This reduces the pore space even more and reduces

the connectivity of the space.

Mixed – less

empty space

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

physical properties of sediments and water flow water retention
Physical Properties of Sediments and Water Flow – Water Retention
  • Amount of water that is retained as water flows through sediments
  • Water is retained on the surface so the greater the surface area, the higher the water retention
  • Which will have more retention for the same volume - gravel or sand?

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

physical properties of sediments and water flow water retention9
Physical Properties of Sediments and Water Flow – Water Retention

For the same volume, smaller particles will have more surface area, and therefore, greater water retention.

Sand will have higher water retention.

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

physical properties of sediments and water flow permeability
Physical Properties of Sediments and Water Flow- Permeability
  • Measure of the flow of water through ground material
  • Depends on the size of sediment particles because it is controlled by the connectivity of pore space and surface area

Comparison animation

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

http://techalive.mtu.edu/meec/module06/Permeability.htm

physical properties of sediments and water flow permeability11
Physical Properties of Sediments and Water Flow- Permeability
  • To determine permeability you can measure :

flow time: time for a set amount of water to flow through the sediment (minutes/100 mL)

or

flow rate: volume of water that flows through a given amount of sediment in a set amount of time (mL/minute)

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

physical properties of sediments and water flow permeability12
Physical Properties of Sediments and Water Flow- Permeability

P = relative permeability

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

groundwater animation for kids
Groundwater Animation for Kids

This site has a cute animation about the importance of groundwater. It runs about 4 minutes and requires Macromedia Flash 5 (or newer version).

Click on image to view

a groundwater animation

http://www.kingcounty.gov/environment/waterandland/groundwater/education/animation.aspx

PSC 121 Prince George\'s Community College

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