Hydrology
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Hydrology. Unit 6 Topic 8 in your Review Book. Hydrology is the study of water in, on and around the earth The water cycle a model of the movement and changes in phase of water at and near the surface of the earth. Evapotranspiration : A combination of:

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Hydrology

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Hydrology

Hydrology

Unit 6

Topic 8 in your Review Book


Hydrology

  • Hydrology is the study of water in, on and around the earth

  • The water cycle

  • a model of the movement and changes in phase of water at and near the surface of the earth


Hydrology

  • Evapotranspiration:

  • A combination of:

  • the evaporation of surface and ground water and

  • the release of water vapor through the pores of leaves

  • It is the source of all atmospheric water vapor


Hydrology

  • Precipitation:

  • the source of water for the earth

  • in the form of rain, drizzle, snow, sleet, freezing rain and/or hail


3 water and climate

3. Water and Climate

  • Climate is the overall view of a region’s weather conditions over a long period of time

  • The two factors tied to climate are:

  • Temperature

  • Moisture


Hydrology

  • Potential evapotranspiration is the amount of water vapor that would occur in an area if the water was available.

  • It is mostly determined by the amount of insolation an area receives (which determines the regions’ average temperature)


Hydrology

  • When

    • PPT < ET: the climate is arid or dry

    • PPT > ET: the climate is humid or wet


Hydrology

  • Storage:

  • ground and surface waters

  • Surplus:

  • excess water

  • Deficit:

  • not enough water


A factors influencing climate

A. Factors influencing climate

  • Latitude:

    as latitude increases,

    temperature decreases

  • Planetary wind and pressure belt: see ESRT page 14


Hydrology

  • Oceans and other large bodies of water

  • Mountains

  • Elevation

  • Cloud cover

  • Vegetation


Concepts of the water cycle

Concepts of the Water Cycle

A. Infiltration:

  • the process by which water soaks into the ground under the influence of gravity

  • The water table is the limit of infiltration


Hydrology

  • If the ground is saturated (holding all of the water it can hold) infiltration cannot occur

  • If the ground is frozen, infiltration will not occur

  • If the precipitation is rapid and/or intense, infiltration is less likely to occur


Hydrology

  • If the slope is steep, infiltration is less likely to occur

  • If the ground is covered with pavement and/or buildings, infiltration is not likely to occur

  • If the soil is impermeable, infiltration cannot occur


Hydrology

  • Permeable soil or sediment allows water to flow down through it.

  • Porosity is the ability of a material to hold water in open spaces

  • Porosity depends upon the interconnectedness of the spaces between the sediment


Hydrology

  • Well-sorted sediments with round grains have a high porosity

  • Size does not affect porosity

  • Shape and sorting does!

  • Porous sediment is very permeable


Hydrology

  • As porosity increases

  • permeability increases

  • As degree of sorting increases

  • porosity increases and

  • permeability increases

  • As roundness increases

  • porosity increases and

  • permeability increases


B water table

B. Water Table

  • The interface between the zone of aeration and the zone of saturation

  • Its depth fluctuates and is dependent upon the amount of available moisture


Hydrology

  • At times of moisture surplus

  • the water table is located closer to the surface…

  • the depth of the water table decreases


Hydrology

  • At times of moisture deficit:

  • the water table is located farther from the surface…

  • the depth of the water table increases


Hydrology

Normal depth

Deficit depth

Surplus depth

Z of A

Zone of aeration

Zone of saturation


Hydrology

The end!


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