Contemporary religions in canada
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 20

Contemporary Religions in Canada PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 58 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Contemporary Religions in Canada. Judaism. Judaism. Important preliminary… “being Jewish” can be either an ethnic or religious affiliation (and in many cases both)

Download Presentation

Contemporary Religions in Canada

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Contemporary religions in canada

Contemporary Religions in Canada

Judaism


Judaism

Judaism

  • Important preliminary…

    • “being Jewish” can be either an ethnic or religious affiliation (and in many cases both)

    • Hence, “secular Jews” (ethnic but not embracing religious beliefs or rituals)…or converts to Judaism (religiously but not ethnically Jewish)…former are quite common, latter less so.


Judaism1

Judaism

  • Basic beliefs

    • Monotheistic—belief in one God (a belief passed on to both Christianity and Islam which also have their roots in the ancient Hebrew or “Abrahamic religion”)

    • This God has showed himself to the ancient ancestors of the Jews in self-revelation

      • First to Abraham

      • Later saving Israel (nation descended from Abraham) from slavery in Egypt, led by Moses to Mt. Sinai where they were giving divine law (Torah)


Judaism2

Judaism

  • Basic beliefs

    • Torah (instruction)—the law given by God to Israel at Mt. Sinai through Moses

    • 613 Commandments (halakhah)

    • God gives Israel the choice of life or death based on it following these commands

    • By giving the law, God makes it possible for his people to “choose life” by following his will as laid out by the commandments


Judaism3

Judaism

  • Basic beliefs

    • This exchange in which God chooses (election) and saves and protects his people, Israel, and they respond with obedience to his life-giving commands is called a “covenant”

      • Hence a self-understanding by Jews as a “chosen people”

    • Commands require deeds of loving kindness (mitzvot)—that is, the people of God must embody in their lives the kindness and justice of God as a model to the world


Judaism4

Judaism

  • Basic beliefs

    • Sacred Texts

      • “Torah”—technically the five books of Moses (first five books of Hebrew Bible/Christian OT)

      • Tanak—the Hebrew Bible (=Christian OT), Torah (Law), Nebi’im (Prophets), Kitubim (Writings)

      • Mishnah—collection of rabbinic debates over laws pulled together in 2nd century CE

      • Talmud (“learning”/ “study”)—collection of ongoing rabbinic debates on Mishnah pulled together in 4-6th century CE

        • Along with the Tanak, THE key writing for contemporary forms of Judaism—what is studied at length by Jewish religious scholars and children educated in Judaism

        • Two “talmuds”—Babylonian (Bavli) (most common); Palestinian (Yerushalami)


Judaism5

Judaism

  • Basic beliefs

    • Talmud

      • Essentially a written form of ongoing oral dialogue

      • In some senses never “finished” because the oral dialogues of the Talmud are taken up in contemporary study of Talmud and the debates are rehashed and refreshed

      • Debate over the law is at the heart of talmudic piety—wrestling with God and his laws is at the heart of Jewish religious practice

      • Captured well in the Hebrew Bible story of Jacob who wrestles with other men and God and so is given the name “Israel” (means “fights with God”)


Judaism6

Judaism

  • Historical Roots of Judaism

    • Modern “Judaism” has its roots in the era of the ancient Hebrew Bible, but with its emphasis on oral Torah it finds its path after the fall of the second Temple in 60 CE in what we call “rabbinic Judaism”—a reorganization of the faith in light of the absence of a Temple in Jerusalem

    • The Jewish faith is reoriented away from a Temple centered cult to one which finds its piety expressed in terms of prayers, good deeds, and the study of Torah and its application to everyday life.


Judaism7

Judaism

  • “Types” of Judaism

    • Reform Judaism

      • Most “liberal” expression of Judaism

      • Has its roots in 1800’s Europe

      • Expresses an attempt to “modernize” Judaism in the context of Enlightenment Europe (itself increasingly less “Christian” and more “secular”)

      • Defines Judaism as a “rational-ethical system”, a religion which offers ideas of ethics and justice to humanity


Judaism8

Judaism

  • “Types” of Judaism

    • Reform Judaism

      • Is not concerned with ritual legal components of Judaism such as kosher food laws

      • Does not hold to a belief in a coming messiah, rather belief in humanity’s progress toward a “messianic age” (easily equated with notions of scientific/rational progress)

      • Was not originally interested in a return of Jews to the land of Israel (although it birthed secular Jewish movements that did form the modern state of Israel)

      • Sees Judaism as a religion developing over time rather than a religion of eternal unchanging truths and practices

      • Open to innovations such as prayers in local languages rather than Hebrew


Judaism9

Judaism

  • “Types” of Judaism

    • Orthodox Judaism

      • Can be seen as a movement in response to Reform Judaism, although it would define itself as essentially maintaining a strict lineage with pre-modern forms of rabbinic Judaism.

      • Opposite to all the modernizing tendencies of Reform Judaism

        • All prayers in Hebrew

        • All laws are eternal and unchanging truth (not historically conditioned and easily cast aside)

        • Messiah is a literal figure who’s coming is prayed for

        • Believe in an ultimate return of all Jews to land of Israel (although not necessarily fans of modern state of Israel)


Judaism10

Judaism

  • “Types” of Judaism

    • Conservative Judaism

      • In some senses a “middle path” between Reform and Orthodox Judaism

      • Focuses on Jewish practices, rather than beliefs

        • One may believe or disbelieve aspects of the supernatural worldview of pre-modern rabbinic Judaism

        • Rather what is important is observing Torah in daily life (here it allows more compromises than the Orthodox as well)

      • More American in origin and has an “American pragmatism” about it

      • Most influential and widely embraced form of Judaism in America


Judaism11

Judaism

  • “Types” of Judaism

    • Ultra-Orthodox Judaism

      • The more radical or “fundamentalist” form of Judaism

      • Consists of a number of more radical sects that call for a high level of Jewish self-segregation and absolute application of Talmudic law

      • Are most visible these days as those who oppose any concessions to Palestinians and favour settlements in Palestinian territories as a precursor to their expulsion from Israel

      • Some, however, are very opposed to the secular state of Israel


Judaism12

Judaism

  • “Types” of Judaism

    • Other Terms to be familiar with…

      • Kabbalah—Jewish mystical movement which draws especially on Zohar (Book of Splendor), seeking to discover the spiritual emanations of God in the physical world (hence, is assumed to have neo-platonic and gnostic influences) through mystical contemplation and devout performance of the requirements of halakhah.

      • Hasidic Judaism—a Jewish movement with roots in Poland and with some links to Kabbalistic forms of Judaism, founded by Israel ben Eliezer (“the Besht”), a charismatic healer who taught joy is the only correct response to the great suffering of the Jews, creating a division of Judaism known for its festive communal worship and its reverence for the Tzaddik, the revered holy man who leads the hasidic community.


Judaism13

Judaism

  • “Types” of Judaism

    • Other Terms to be familiar with…

      • Zionism—a secular Jewish movement in the late 1800’s/early 1900’s that saw the establishment of a state for Jews as the only answer to ongoing Jewish persecution; now a term generally applied to a belief in the necessity of a Jewish state for the Jews

      • Holocaust—the destruction of 6 million European Jews by Hitler in WW 2—a devastating event that reshaped Jewish religion, politics, and identity and can be understood as the catalyst for the creation of the state of Israel in 1948, as well as a rethinking of aspects of Jewish theology by some leading Jewish writers


Judaism14

Judaism

  • Jewish Practices…in brief (there are many)

    • Sabbath observance (Friday sundown to Saturday sundown)

      • How strictly observed depends on particular form of Judaism followed

    • Synagogue (Shul)

      • Where Jews gather, particularly on the Sabbath, where services consist of prayers, readings/chanting from biblical texts, “sermons”

      • Also used at other times for morning/afternoon prayers or meetings


Judaism15

Judaism

  • Jewish Practices…in brief (there are many)

    • Festivals

      • Rosh Hashanah (“Days of Awe”—10 day festival in Autumn)

        • Days of communal prayer spent at synagogue which mark the start of the year (the anniversary of the creation of the world; hence readings about creation)

        • Also a time of self-examination and renewal

        • Ends with a day of total fasting and repentance known as Yom Kippur (“Day of Atonement”) (but that day then ends with a festive community meal)

      • Sukkoth (7 day festival a short time after Yom Kippur)

        • Celebratory, for observant Jews may involve setting up a Sukkah, a temporary tent-like shelter to commemorate the wilderness wanderings of Israel, in which meals are eaten


Judaism16

Judaism

  • Jewish Practices…in brief (there are many)

    • Festivals

      • Hannukah (8 day festival circa Christmas time)

        • Commemorates the cleansing of the 2nd Temple after it was desecrated by the Greeks and the miracle of the consecrated oil not running out on the Temple lamp

        • Celebrated with lighting candles and eating “oily” foods

      • Purim (typically mid March)

        • Commemorates the victory Queen Esther gains for the Jews in the Persian era from their nemesis Haman

        • Involves gift-giving and very heavy drinking

      • Passover (Pesach)

        • A family based celebration that commemorates the Exodus from Egypt—requires a feast with unleavened bread (matzah) and other items


Judaism17

Judaism

  • Jewish Practices…in brief (there are many)

    • Festivals

      • Hannukah (8 day festival circa Christmas time)

        • Commemorates the cleansing of the 2nd Temple after it was desecrated by the Greeks and the miracle of the consecrated oil not running out on the Temple lamp

        • Celebrated with lighting candles and eating “oily” foods

      • Purim (typically mid March)

        • Commemorates the victory Queen Esther gains for the Jews in the Persian era from their nemesis Haman

        • Involves gift-giving and very heavy drinking

      • Passover (Pesach)

        • A family based celebration that commemorates the Exodus from Egypt—requires a feast with unleavened bread (matzah) and other items


Judaism18

Judaism

  • Jewish Practices…in brief (there are many)

    • Circumcision—cutting off the foreskin of the penis of males (shortly after birth) as a religious ritual/Jewish identity marker

    • Kosher—observing the food laws of the Torah

      • E.g., not eating pork/pork products, not mixing meat and dairy, no shellfish, meat only from animals killed according to Jewish law, etc.

      • Strictness of observance varies within Jewish communities

    • Bar/Bat Mitzvah—coming of age ritual for Jewish children (12 for girls; 13 for boys); involves memorizing Torah and reading Scripture in synagogue service for the first time


  • Login