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SUPERPAVE BINDER SPECIFICATIONS & SELECTIONS. New Binder Specification SUPERPAVE. Fundamental properties related to pavement performance Environmental factors In-service & construction temperatures Short and long term aging. - 20 20 60 135. Pavement Temperature, °C.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

SUPERPAVE BINDER SPECIFICATIONS & SELECTIONS

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

new binder specification superpave
New Binder SpecificationSUPERPAVE
  • Fundamental properties related to pavement performance
  • Environmental factors
  • In-service & construction temperatures
  • Short and long term aging

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

slide3

- 20 20 60 135

Pavement Temperature, °C

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

slide4

Superpave Asphalt Binder Specification

The grading system is based on climate

PG 64 - 22

Min pavement temperature

Performance Grade

Average 7-day max pavement temperature

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

slide5

Performance Grades

CEC

Avg 7-day Max, oC

PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82

1-day Min, oC

-34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34

ORIGINAL

> 230 oC

(Flash Point) FP

<[email protected] oC

(Rotational Viscosity) RV

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 1.00 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) RTFO Mass Loss < 1.00 %

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 2.20 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) PAV

20 Hours, 2.07 MPa

90 90 100 100 100 (110) 100 (110) 110 (110)

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G* sin 

< 5000 kPa

28

10 7 4 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 31

( Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR “S” Stiffness & “m”- value

S < 300 MPa

m > 0.300

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

Report Value

(Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR Physical Hardening

> 1.00 %

(Direct Tension) DT

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

slide6

How the PG Spec Works

58

64

CEC

Spec Requirement

Remains Constant

Avg 7-day Max, oC

PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82

1-day Min, oC

-34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34

ORIGINAL

> 230 oC

(Flash Point) FP

<[email protected]135 oC

(Rotational Viscosity) RV

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 1.00 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) RTFO Mass Loss < 1.00 %

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 2.20 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) PAV

20 Hours, 2.07 MPa

90 90 100 100 100 (110) 100 (110) 110 (110)

Test Temperature

Changes

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G* sin 

< 5000 kPa

28

10 7 4 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 31

( Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR “S” Stiffness & “m”- value

S < 300 MPa

m > 0.300

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

Report Value

(Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR Physical Hardening

> 1.00 %

(Direct Tension) DT

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

slide7

Permanent Deformation

CEC

Avg 7-day Max, oC

PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82

1-day Min, oC

-34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34

ORIGINAL

> 230 oC

(Flash Point) FP

<[email protected] oC

(Rotational Viscosity) RV

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 1.00 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) RTFO Mass Loss < 1.00 %

  • Unaged
  • RTFO Aged

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 2.20 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) PAV

20 Hours, 2.07 MPa

90 90 100 100 100 (110) 100 (110) 110 (110)

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G* sin 

< 5000 kPa

28

10 7 4 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 31

( Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR “S” Stiffness & “m”- value

S < 300 MPa

m > 0.300

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

Report Value

(Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR Physical Hardening

> 1.00 %

(Direct Tension) DT

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

permanent deformation
Permanent Deformation
  • Addressed by high temp stiffness
    • G*/sin  on unaged binder > 1.00 kPa
    • G*/sin  on RTFO aged binder > 2.20 kPa

> Early part of

pavement

service life

Heavy Trucks

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

slide9

Fatigue Cracking

CEC

Avg 7-day Max, oC

PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82

1-day Min, oC

-34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34

ORIGINAL

> 230 oC

(Flash Point) FP

<[email protected] oC

(Rotational Viscosity) RV

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 1.00 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) RTFO Mass Loss < 1.00 %

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 2.20 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) PAV

20 Hours, 2.07 MPa

90 90 100 100 100 (110) 100 (110) 110 (110)

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G* sin 

< 5000 kPa

28

10 7 4 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 31

PAV Aged

( Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR “S” Stiffness & “m”- value

S < 300 MPa

m > 0.300

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

Report Value

(Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR Physical Hardening

> 1.00 %

(Direct Tension) DT

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

fatigue cracking
Fatigue Cracking
  • Addressed by intermediate temperature stiffness
    • G*sin  on RTFO & PAV aged binder < 5000 kPa

> Later part of

pavement service life

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

slide11

Low Temperature Cracking

CEC

Avg 7-day Max, oC

PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82

1-day Min, oC

-34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34

ORIGINAL

> 230 oC

(Flash Point) FP

<[email protected] oC

(Rotational Viscosity) RV

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 1.00 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) RTFO Mass Loss < 1.00 %

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 2.20 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) PAV

20 Hours, 2.07 MPa

90 90 100 100 100 (110) 100 (110) 110 (110)

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G* sin 

< 5000 kPa

28

10 7 4 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 31

( Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR “S” Stiffness & “m”- value

S < 300 MPa

m > 0.300

PAV Aged

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

Report Value

(Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR Physical Hardening

> 1.00 %

(Direct Tension) DT

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

slide12

Low Temperature Cracking

CEC

Avg 7-day Max, oC

PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82

1-day Min, oC

-34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34

ORIGINAL

> 230 oC

(Flash Point) FP

<[email protected] oC

(Rotational Viscosity) RV

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 1.00 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) RTFO Mass Loss < 1.00 %

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 2.20 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) PAV

20 Hours, 2.07 MPa

90 90 100 100 100 (110) 100 (110) 110 (110)

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G* sin 

< 5000 kPa

28

10 7 4 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 31

( Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR “S” Stiffness & “m”- value

S < 300 MPa

m > 0.300

PAV Aged

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

Report Value

(Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR Physical Hardening

> 1.00 %

(Direct Tension) DT

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

slide13

Miscellaneous Spec Requirements

CEC

Avg 7-day Max, oC

PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82

1-day Min, oC

-34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34

ORIGINAL

> 230 oC

FlashPoint

(Flash Point) FP

<[email protected] oC

(Rotational Viscosity) RV

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 1.00 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

MassLoss

(ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) RTFO Mass Loss < 1.00 %

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 2.20 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) PAV

20 Hours, 2.07 MPa

90 90 100 100 100 (110) 100 (110) 110 (110)

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G* sin 

< 5000 kPa

28

10 7 4 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 31

( Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR “S” Stiffness & “m”- value

S < 300 MPa

m > 0.300

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

Report Value

(Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR Physical Hardening

> 1.00 %

(Direct Tension) DT

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

slide14

PG Binder Selection

> Many agencies have

established zones

PG 52-28

PG 58-22

PG 58-16

PG 64-10

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

developed from air temperatures

SHRP

A-648A

Developed from Air Temperatures

> 20 years

  • Superpave Weather Database
    • 6500 stations in U.S. and Canada
  • Annual air temperatures
    • hottest seven-day temp (avg and std dev)
    • coldest temp (avg and std dev)
  • Calculated pavement temps used in PG selection

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

reliability
Reliability
  • Percent probability of not exceeding design temp

> using Normal Distribution

Reliability is area under curve

to the left of Tdes

Frequency of

observed temps

(Total area under

curve = 100 %)

Tavg

Tdes

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

observed air temperatures topeka ks
Observed Air Temperatures Topeka, KS

50 % reliability

average summer

very hot summer

98 % reliability

Standard deviation of 2°C

36

40

7-Day Maximum Air Temperatures

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

observed air temperatures topeka ks1

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Observed Air Temperatures Topeka, KS

36

very cold winter

40

average winter

-31

-23

standard deviation of 4°C

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

convert to pavement temperature
Convert to Pavement Temperature
  • Calculated by Superpave software
  • High Temperature (20 mm

below surface of mixture)

  • Low Temperature (at surface

of mix)

calculated pavement temperatures topeka ks

56

60

-31

-23

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Calculated Pavement TemperaturesTopeka, KS

pvt > air

pvt > air

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

pg binder grades topeka ks
PG Binder GradesTopeka, KS

PG 64-34 (98% minimum reliability)

PG 58-28 (50 % minimum reliability)

PG grades - six degree increments

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

effect of rounding to standard grades
Effect of Rounding to Standard Grades

PG 58-28 (50 % minimum reliability)

  • PG 58 provides 85% reliability
  • PG -28 provides 90% reliability

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

effect of rounding to standard grades1

-16 -22 -28

Effect of Rounding to Standard Grades

needed grade

for 50% reliability

selected grade

for 50% reliability

Rounding depends on actual temps!

-28

-23

Minimum Pavement Temperatures

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

effect of loading rate on binder selection
Effect of Loading Rate on Binder Selection

90 kph

  • Dilemma
    • Specified DSR loading rate is 10 rad/sec
    • What about longer loading times ?
  • Use binder with more stiffness at higher temps
    • Slow - - increase one high temp grade
    • Stationary - - increase two high temp grades
    • No effect on low temp grade

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

effect of loading rate on binder selection1
Effect of Loading Rate on Binder Selection
  • Example
    • for toll road PG 64-22
    • for toll booth PG 70-22
    • for weigh stations PG 76-22

90 kph

Slow

Stopping

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

slide26

Jim’s Produce

Ace Trucking Co.

All Traffic Converted to ESAL\'s

ESAL = Equivalent Single Axle Loads

esal comparison

80 kN

18,000 lb.

100 kN

22,000 lb.

44 kN

10,000 lb.

2.2

ESAL

.09

ESAL

1

ESAL

ESAL Comparison

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

slide28

Little Truck

67 kN

15,000 lb

0.48 ESAL

27 kN

6,000 lb

0.01 ESAL

0.49 ESALs

=

+

BIG TRUCK

151 kN

34,000 lb

1.10

151 kN

34,000 lb

1.10

54 kN

12,000 lb

0.19

2.39 ESALs

=

+

+

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

slide29

Acme Van Lines

ESAL Comparison

3,500-5,000

1

effect of traffic amount on binder selection

80 kN ESALs

Effect of Traffic Amounton Binder Selection
  • 10 - 30 x 106 ESAL
    • Consider increasing - - one high temp grade
  • 30 x 106 + ESAL
    • Recommend increasing - - one high temp grade

> Equivalent Single Axle Loads

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

slide31

How the PG Spec Works

58

64

CEC

Spec Requirement

Remains Constant

Avg 7-day Max, oC

PG 46 PG 52 PG 58 PG 64 PG 70 PG 76 PG 82

1-day Min, oC

-34 -40 -46 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34 -10 -16 -22 -28 -34

ORIGINAL

> 230 oC

(Flash Point) FP

<[email protected] oC

(Rotational Viscosity) RV

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 1.00 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN) RTFO Mass Loss < 1.00 %

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G*/sin 

> 2.20 kPa

46 52 58 64 70 76 82

(PRESSURE AGING VESSEL) PAV

20 Hours, 2.07 MPa

90 90 100 100 100 (110) 100 (110) 110 (110)

Test Temperature

Changes

(Dynamic Shear Rheometer) DSR G* sin 

< 5000 kPa

28

10 7 4 25 22 19 16 13 10 7 25 22 19 16 13 31 28 25 22 19 16 34 31 28 25 22 19 37 34 31 28 25 40 37 34 31

( Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR “S” Stiffness & “m”- value

S < 300 MPa

m > 0.300

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

Report Value

(Bending Beam Rheometer) BBR Physical Hardening

> 1.00 %

(Direct Tension) DT

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

-24 -30 -36 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 -36 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 -30 0 -6 -12 -18 -24 0 -6 -12 -18 -24

summary of how to use pg specification
Summary of How to Use PG Specification
  • Determine
    • 7-day max pavement temperatures
    • 1-day minimum pavement temperature
  • Use specification tables to select test temperatures
  • Determine asphalt cement properties and compare to specification limits

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

prediction of pg grades for crude blends
Prediction of PG Grades for Crude Blends

52-34

52-40

Low Quality Crudes

High Quality Crudes

Modifier Required

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

rule of 90

“Rule of 90”

Is a PG a Modified Binder?

Reliability

Effect of Loading Rate

Rounding

Effect of Traffic

Example: PG 64 - 34 has a temperature

range of 64 to - 34 or 98 C. Therefore, this binder is probably modified !! (Depends on Asphalt Source!)

slide36

Questions – does it all make sense?

Superpave Binder Specs & Selections

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