Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)
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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: Analysis of Mode H and Mode L and Related Merger Proposals for AFH Date Submitted: November 1, 2001 Source: YC Maa, HK Chen, Shawn Liu and KC Chen

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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

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Project ieee p802 15 working group for wireless personal area networks wpans

Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

Submission Title: Analysis of Mode H and Mode L and Related Merger Proposals for AFH

Date Submitted: November 1, 2001

Source:YC Maa, HK Chen, Shawn Liu and KC Chen

Company: Integrated Programmable Communications, Inc.

Address:Taiwan Laboratories Address: P.O. Box 24-226, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300

TEL +886 3 516 5106, FAX: +886 3 516 5108, E-Mail: {ycmaa, hkchen, shawnliu, [email protected]

Re: [IEEE 802.15-00/367r1, IEEE 802.15-01/082r1, IEEE 802.15-01/246r1, IEEE 802.15-01/252r0, IEEE 802.15-01/366r1, IEEE 802.15-01/382r0, IEEE 802.15-01/385r0, IEEE 802.15-01/386r0, IEEE 802.15-01/491r0]

Abstract:This presentation compares mode H, mode L, as well as different merging proposals for AFH mechanisms.

Purpose:Submission to TG2 for analyzing mode H, L and different AFH merger proposals for draft consideration.

Notice:This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein.

Release:The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15.

InProComm, Inc.


Analysis of mode h and mode l and related merger proposals for afh

Analysis of Mode H and Mode L and Related Merger Proposals for AFH

KC Chen,YC Maa, HK Chen, and Shawn Liu

Integrated Programmable Communications, Inc.

InProComm, Inc.


Outline

Outline

  • Review of AFH: Mode H and Mode L

  • Review of Different Merger Proposals

    • 01/382r0

    • 01/385r0

    • 01/491r0

  • Conclusion

InProComm, Inc.


Review of afh 1

Review of AFH (1)

  • Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH):

    • Non-collaborative mechanism enabling the coexistence of 802.15.1 devices and ISM band frequency-static devices (e.g. 802.11b)

    • Dynamically change the frequency hopping sequence to avoid or mitigate the interference seen by 802.15.1 devices.

InProComm, Inc.


Review of afh 2

1

2

3

4

Device Identification

Channel Classification

Classification Information exchange

AFH

Mechanism

Review of AFH (2)

  • Flow of AFH

    • Device Identification and Operation mode

    • Channel Classification

    • Exchange of Channel Information

    • Initiate/Terminate AFH

InProComm, Inc.


Review of afh 3 inside afh mechanism

Review of AFH (3): Inside AFH Mechanism

RF input signal

Frequency synthesizer

mapping

partition sequence

Original hopping sequence generator

Hop clock

InProComm, Inc.


Review of afh 4

Review of AFH (4)

  • AFH merger baseline document: 01/252r0 (May01)

    • Voted & unanimously approved in May01 meeting

    • initial draft text 01/366r1 in Jul01 meeting

  • Mode H baseline document: 01/246r0 (May01)

    • When the number of usable channels are sufficient (no less than the minimum required number)

      • Use Usable channels only

    • When the number of usable channels are insufficient

      • Use Usable and Kept channels intelligently

  • Mode L baseline document: 00/367r1 (Mar01)

    • When the number of usable channels are sufficient

      • Use Usable channels only

    • When the number of usable channels are insufficient

      • Use Usable and “fill-in” channels blindly

      • Higher packet error rate, and throughput will suffer

InProComm, Inc.


Project ieee p802 15 working group for wireless personal area networks wpans

Review of AFH (5):Mechanism

  • Channels are classified into 3 groups: (dynamic classification)

    • Usablechannel setSU: uninterfered or good channels (size = NU)

    • Keptchannel setSK: interfered channels kept for AFH (size = NK)

    • Removedchannel setSR : interfered channels left out in AFH (size = NR)

    • NU + NK + NR = 79

  • Define Nmin to be the minimum number of channels that a Bluetooth device must hop over.

  • Usable and Kept need to be considered, based on Nmin, NU:

    • Nmin NU: only use usable channels in the hopping sequence

    • Nmin> NU: require kept channels in addition to usable channels in the new hopping sequence, where kept channels NK= Nmin–NU

  • When kept channels are required, both “partition sequence” and “mapping” mechanisms are executed.

  • When kept channels are not required, only “mapping” mechanism is executed.

InProComm, Inc.


Project ieee p802 15 working group for wireless personal area networks wpans

Review: Three Merging Proposals

01/382r0, 01/385r0, 01/491r0

InProComm, Inc.


Review 01 382r0 mode h mapping

Top path: the kept & removed channels are mapped to usable channels

The paths drawn in black are exactly the same structure as mode L

.

SU.

.

Mod

XH

1

0

bank of usable channels

1

0

fadp

0

NU

NK

1

.

.

.

YH

Middle path: the usable & removed channels are mapped to kept channels

SK

pseq

bank of kept channels

XH: shifting signal of mode H to equalize channel utilization

YH: bypass control signal of mode H

pseq: partition sequence specifying using SU or SK

Bottom path: bypass if original channel is already in the desired set specified by pseq

Review: 01/382r0 - mode H mapping

fgen

InProComm, Inc.


Review 01 382r0 mode l mapping

Review: 01/382r0 - mode L mapping

Top path: the kept & removed channels are mapped to usable channels

.

.

.

.

Mod

SU

XL

NU

0

fadp

fgen

bank of usable channels

1

YL

fgen: hopping sequence before doing AFH

fadp: hopping sequence after mapping

XL: shifting signal of mode L to equalize channel utilization

YL: bypass control signal of mode L

Bottom path: bypass if original channel is already usable

InProComm, Inc.


Review 01 382r0 merging proposal

Review - 01/382r0 Merging Proposal

  • Structural Comparison:

    • Mode H:

      • Path 1 - the kept & removed channels are mapped to usable channels

      • Path 2 - the usable & removed channels are mapped to kept channels

      • Path 3 - bypass

    • Mode L:

      • Path 1: the kept & removed channels are mapped to usable channels

      • Path 2: bypass

  • Mathematical Comparison:

    • Mode H is equivalent to Mode L when

      • pseq = 1, i.e. map to usable channels only.

      • XH=XL , same shifting signals

      • YH=YL , same bypass paths

InProComm, Inc.


Review 01 382r0 merging proposal1

Review - 01/382r0 Merging Proposal

  • Mode H is superset of Mode L, mode L is a special case of Mode H.

  • Structurally and Mathematically compared, Mode H is equivalent to Mode L when usable channels are sufficient.

  • Mode H

    • implements both modes of AFH

    • should be the basis for merging AFH mechanisms

InProComm, Inc.


Review 01 385r0 merge proposal

Review - 01/385r0 Merge Proposal

Different Naming:

Frequency Replacement for Mode L

Grouping/Pairing for Mode H

Block Concatenation instead of

functional merge

3.Use remaining ‘bad’ channels in intelligent manner.

AM_ADDR

CLKE12-1 / CLKN12-1

23/79 Mode

12

Selection

Box

Frequency Replacement

Grouping / paring

UAP/LAP

fgen

fout

fadp

28

CLOCK

27

2.Remove as many ‘bad’ channels as required / legally possible.

1.Bluetooth Hopping Sequence generator

InProComm, Inc.


Frequency replacement of 01 385r0

RANDW

12

.

Mod NG

7

fgen

Good channel bank

Frequency Replacement of 01/385r0

  • not_usable channels- use mapping for replacement

  • usable channels- bypass

  • The structure is identical to the mode L block diagram shown in of 01/382r0.

fadp

InProComm, Inc.


Grouping pairing of 01 385r0

Grouping/Pairing of 01/385r0

  • 01/385r0 does not show any block diagram on Grouping/Pairing.

  • From the context of 01/386r0, the “grouping/pairing” block should be the same mode H block diagram as shown in 01/382r0.

  • Mode H already includes the “frequency replacement” functionality.

InProComm, Inc.


Review redundancy in 01 385r0 merge proposal

Review – Redundancy in 01/385r0 Merge Proposal

  • Redundant functions appear both in the first “frequency replacement” block and the second “grouping/pairing” block

    • Adder

    • Modulo

    • Mapping Table (bank for channels)

  • They should be merged wherever possible

InProComm, Inc.


Review 01 385r0 merge or concatenation

Review - 01/385r0Merge or Concatenation?

  • Merge should reduce the overall complexity.

  • Concatenation is not a merge

    • It adds up the complexity

    • frequency replacement redundant functionality

InProComm, Inc.


Review interoperability in 01 385r0 merge proposal

Review - Interoperability in 01/385r0 Merge Proposal

  • Under 01/385r0, four different Bluetooth devices will exist

    • Bluetooth 1.1 legacy device

    • Device only using frequency replacement

    • Device only using grouping/pairing

    • Device using both of the above two schemes

  • Interoperability nightmares!

    • Deals with different vendor designs

    • Results in complex LMP commands and operations

InProComm, Inc.


Review 01 491r0 merged afh draft

Review - 01/491r0 Merged AFH Draft

Traffic type

(ACL or SCO)

Single AFH Mechanism to

accommodate mode H and mode L

Partition

Channel Conditions

Sequence

(

S

,

S

,

N

,

N

)

Generator

U

K

U

K

p

(

k

)

f

(

k

)

Legacy

hop

hop

phase

Frequency

f

Hop

(master's clock)

Re-mapper

adp

Kernel

address

Channel Conditions

(master's identity)

(

S

,

S

,

N

,

N

)

U

K

U

K

InProComm, Inc.


Review 01 491r0 merged afh draft1

Review - 01/491r0 Merged AFH Draft

  • A single AFH mechanism to accommodate both mode H and mode L

  • Conforms to previous agreements

    • 01/252r0 in May01

    • 01/366r1 in Jul01 meetings

  • Structurally similar to 01/382r0 proposal

  • LMP commands to be finished up as of 11/5/01

InProComm, Inc.


Project ieee p802 15 working group for wireless personal area networks wpans

Conclusion

&

Recommendation

InProComm, Inc.


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • AFH merger proposal (01/382r0) and AFH draft (01/491r0)

    • provides unified and merged framework of AFH mechanism

    • perfectly complies with May01 voting and Jul01 chairman’s instruction.

    • Mode H and Mode L have been fully implemented and incorporated in the proposal and draft.

InProComm, Inc.


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