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Chapter 17 (2012 Edition) Hairstyling - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 17 (2012 Edition) Hairstyling. Hairstyling or dressing the hair ~ direct relation to the fashion, art, and life of the times Ready-to-wear clothing ~ wash-and-wear hair. educate clients in ~ home care maintenance

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Chapter 17

(2012 Edition)


  • educate clients in

  • ~ home care maintenance

  • ~ styling options for their hair

  • Clients will judge your

  • work by the finished

  • style

  • Client Consultation

  • First step in the hairstyling process

  • Take into consideration

  • ~ face shape

  • ~ hair type

  • ~ lifestyle

  • Finger Waving

  • Shaping and directing the hair into an “S” pattern through the use of fingers, combs, and waving lotion

  • Teaches you the technique of moving and directing the hair

  • Add to side bar:

  • Finger waves develop:

  • Dexterity (finger)

  • Finger strength

  • Coordination,r:9,s:214&tx=89&ty=47

  • Finger Waving Lotion

  • Gel that makes hair pliable, keeps hair in place

  • Made from karaya gum

  • Found in trees in Africa and India

  • Good lotion is harmless to the hair and does not flake when it dries

  • Pin Curls

  • Parts of a Curl

  • Base-closest to the scalp

  • Stem-between the base and the first arc

  • ~ gives direction and movement

  • Circle-forms a complete circle

  • ~ size of circle determines the width of the wave and its strength

  • Mobility of a Curl

  • Stem determines the mobility or movement

  • No-stem curl:

  • -placed directly on the base

  • -produces tight, firm, long-lasting curl

  • -minimum mobility

  • Name the pin curls that have a no-stem curl.

Half-stem curl:

-medium movement

-half off base

Name the pin curl with this stem.

Full-stem curl:

-greatest mobility

-off the base

-strong, definite direction (waves, not curl)

Shaping for Pin Curl Placements

~ section is molded in a circular movement

***Ex. Maypoles

Open and Closed Center Curls

Open-smooth waves and uniform curls

Closed-smaller, fine hair, fluffy curl

Base Pin Curls or Foundations

Rectangular base:

-recommended on front hairline

-smooth upsweep effect

Name the pin curl with

this base, then add to

side bar.

Triangular base:

-use at front or facial hairline

-prevents breaks and splits

Arc base:


-gives good direction

-used at hairline

Which pin curl uses each of these bases? Add to side bar.

  • Square base:

  • -curly styles without volume

  • List the two pin curls that have this base.

  • Add to side bar.

  • Add to side bar:

  • Pin at the base through ½ of

  • the circle

  • Incorrect-pinning through

  • whole circle

  • Pin Curl Techniques

  • Ribboning-forcing the hair between the thumb and the back of the comb to create tension

  • ***smoothes the strand/more even results

  • Carved or Sculptured Curls

  • Formed without lifting the hair

    • ***used to finish the hairline in fingerwaves

Designing with Pin Curls

Barrel Curls

-large center openings

-rectangular base

-similar to roller/not as much tension

***will not last as long as rollers

Creating Volume with Pin Curls

Cascade or Stand-Up Curls

-create height

  • Roller Curls

  • Advantages over pin curls:

  • Much faster

  • Wrapped with tension/stronger, longer-lasting set

  • Variety of sizes

  • Broadens creative possibilities

Parts of a Roller Curl

Base (section)

-same length and width as the roller


-first turn

-direction and mobility

Curl or Circle

-determines size of wave or curl

Fig. 17-29 Fig. 17-30

Determine the good and bad qualities of these two roller sets.

  • Choosing Your Roller Size sets.

  • One complete turn creates a C-shaped curl

  • One-and-a-half turns create a wave

  • Two-and-a-half turns create curls

Roller Placement sets.

On base-full volume

-sits directly on its base

-over-direct (135 degree angle)

Half base-medium volume

-sits halfway on its base and halfway behind the base

-hold strand straight up (90 degree angle)

  • Off base-least volume sets.

  • - sits completely off base

  • * under-direct

  • - 45degrees down from base

  • Roller Direction

  • Placement of rollers follows the movement of the finished style

  • ***how you set is how you comb out

  • Hot Rollers sets.

  • Used on dry hair

  • Stay in for 10-20 minutes

  • Less strong of curl than wet set (rollers)

  • Stronger and longer-lasting

  • than curling iron sets....

  • Velcro Rollers sets.

  • Add to side bar:

  • Not legal in Pa beauty schools

  • Salons must remove hair and disinfect between each client

  • Used on dry hair

  • Wet hair will snag and pull the hair

  • Leave in for 5-10 minutes sets.

  • Comb-out Techniques sets.

  • Good set leads to good comb out

  • If you follow well-structured system of combing out hairstyles, you will save time and get more even results (on test-organized order)

  • *** after the tease

  • ~ start at bottom

  • ~ place hair as you go up to the crown

  • ~ bring in the sides

  • ~ top is last

Back-combing and Back-brushing Techniques sets.


-called teasing, ratting, matting, or French lacing

-mats hair at the scalp

-forms a cushion

Back-brushing sets.

-called ruffing

-soft cushion


-used for up-dos

-adds a little height

-after hot rollers or blow-drying

***read techniques list

  • Hair Wrapping sets.

  • Used to keep curly hair smooth and straight

  • Very little volume-hair at scalp is not lifted

  • Done on wet or dry hair

http:/ 4409310 summary-hair-care...

Read “Here’s a Tip” and “Caution”

  • Blow-dry Styling sets.

  • Technique of drying and styling damp hair in one operation

  • Women desire hairstyles that require the least time and effort to maintain

  • Guide and educate the client through this process

  • The client’s first impression of the haircut you have done will be determined by the quality of the blow-dry sets.

  • Add to side bar: sets.

  • Warm air “molds” the hair (into the desired shape)

  • Cool air “sets” and removes frizz (smoothes and looks like a curling was used)

  • Demonstration on mannequin

Tools for Blow-dry Styling sets.

Blow-dryer-an electrical appliance designed for drying and styling the hair

Concentrator-is a directional feature

-creates a stream of air

Diffuser-air flows more softly

-keeps textural definition

Not on test: good to know-clients will ask. sets.

***Ionic blow dryers and curling irons infuse the hair with beneficial negative ions that seal the hair cuticle, eliminate frizz, and create shiny, silky, healthy hair.

***Ionic blow dryers dry hair quicker than regular blow dryers by breaking up the water in the hair into smaller particles which can evaporate faster.

  • Combs and Picks hair

  • Teeth closely spaced remove definition from curl

  • Creates a smooth surface

  • Widely spread teeth give a more textured surface

  • Comb with pick on the one end lift the hair away from the head

  • Brushes hair

  • Classic styling brush

  • Half-round, rubber based

  • Seven or nine rows

  • Nylon bristles

  • Heat-resistant/antistatic

  • Little volume

  • Less suitable for smooth classic looks


  • Paddle brush hair

  • Large, flat base

  • For mid-to longer-length hair

  • Keeps hair from snagging

  • Grooming brushes hair

  • Mixture of boar and nylon bristles

  • Boar bristles-distribute the scalp oils/gives shine

  • Nylon bristles-stimulate circulation of blood to the scalp

  • Adds polish and shine to fine to medium hair

  • Great for combing out updos

  • Vent brushes hair

  • Speeds up blow-dry process

  • Ideal for fine hair

  • And adding lift at the scalp

  • Round brushes hair

  • Various diameters

  • Metal cylinder bases-heat transferred creates a stronger curl

  • Cooling button “sets” the hair in the new shape

  • Teasing brush hair

  • Thin nylon styling brush

  • Good for back-combing

  • Use the sides of the bristles to smooth into the desired style

  • Sectioning Clips

  • Keep whatever wet hair you are not working with sectioned off

  • Do not allow wet hair to sit over dry hair

  • Styling Products hair

  • “liquid tools”

  • Gives style more hold

  • Adds shine and curl

  • Takes away curl

  • Greatly enhances style

  • Know, to determine correct product for client: hair

  • How long the style needs to hold

  • What environmental conditions-dryness, humidity, wind, sun

  • Type of hair

  • Heavier products work by causing strands of hair to cling together, adding more pronounced

  • definition

  • Can weigh the hair down, especially fine hair

  • Range from light to very firm hold

  • Types of Styling Products hair

  • Foam or mousse

  • light, airy, whipped styling product

  • Good for fine hair

  • Does not weigh hair down

  • Excellent for drier, more porous hair

  • Gel hair

  • Thickened styling preparation

  • Strongest control for slicked or molded styles

  • Gives distinct texture when spread with fingers

  • Creates long-lasting body

  • Firm-hold gel may

  • overwhelm fine hair

  • Liquid gels or texturizers hair

  • Lighter more viscous (liquid)

  • Good for all hair types

  • Offer firmer, longer hold for fine hair with least amount of heaviness

  • Gives a lighter, more moderate

  • hold for normal or coarse

  • hair

  • Upselling hair

  • As you style the client’s hair, talk about the products you are using to achieve the desired look, and why

  • Have client hold product while you demonstrate the uses and benefits of each product…

  • Straightening gel hair

  • Creates a smooth, straight look

  • Counters frizz

  • Temporary

  • Becomes undone in extremely humid conditions

  • Volumizers hair

  • Sprayed at the base of fine, wet hair

  • Adds volume

  • Add a light gel or mousse to the rest of the hair for more hold

  • Avoid the base (with the gel)

  • Pomade or wax hair

  • Adds considerable weight

  • Used on dry hair

  • Very easy to mold

  • Greater manageability

  • Use sparingly on fine hair

  • Excellent on short hair

  • * Demonstrate use

  • Silicone hair

  • Adds gloss and sheen

  • While creating textural definition

  • Non-oily silicone products/all hair types

  • Provides protection while blow-drying

  • Or at the very end for shine

  • Spray shines/no weight

  • Aquage “Beyond Shine”

  • Hair spray or finishing spray hair

  • Form of a mist to hold style in

  • Most widely used product

  • Finishing spray used when style is complete and will not be disturbed

  • ***Build-up removal treatments work well to cleanse the hair from all products

  • ***Baking soda removes hair spray build up in one minute

  • Page 466 hair

  • Direct the stream of air from the blow-dryer over the curl in a back-and-forth motion

  • Service Tip-page 466

  • Never hold the blow-dryer too long in one place

  • Always direct the hot air away from the client’s scalp to prevent scalp burns

  • Direct it from the scalp towards the ends

  • Thermal Hairstyling wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Q. Who invented marcel waving in 1875?

  • Add this to side bar

  • Thermal waving/marcel waving and thermal curling are methods of waving and curling straight or pressed hair using thermal irons and special manipulative techniques on dry hair

a. Marcel Grateau

  • Electrical or stove-heated wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Manipulative techniques/same for both irons

  • Thermal Irons

  • Irons made of quality steel

  • Even heat controlled by stylist

  • Non-electrical favored by stylists catering to clients with excessive curly hair

  • Larger range of barrel or rod size

  • Higher heat capabilities wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Two parts to know: wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Barrel or rod and Shell (spoon)

  • Flat Irons

  • Straight edges

  • Creates smooth, straight styles

  • Beveled edge-bends the ends

  • Improving-constant even heat even on high settings

  • Ergonomic grips/lightweight

  • Testing Thermal Irons wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • After heating, test on tissue paper

  • Hold for 5 seconds

  • If scorches, iron is too hot

  • Let cool before placing in hair

  • Overly hot will scorch hair off/discolor white hair

  • Fine, lightened, or damaged=less heat

  • Care of Thermal Irons wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Remove dirt, oils, and product residue

  • Dampen towel with soapy solution and a few drops of ammonia (or prepared cleaners)

  • Wipe barrel

  • Non-electrical irons, immerse in solution

  • Do not clean while turned on or still cooling

  • Comb Used With Thermal Irons wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Use hard rubber or other nonflammable substance

  • Have fine teeth to firmly hold the hair

  • Manipulating Thermal Irons

  • Hold iron in a comfortable position that gives you complete control

  • Temperature wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Setting depends on texture of the hair

  • Fine hair, lightened or tinted, or white hair use gentle heat (warm not hot)

  • Coarse and gray hair-use more heat (hotter)

  • Thermal Curling with Electric Thermal Irons wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Straight hair-permits quick styling

  • Pressed hair-permits styling without danger of returning to its former extremely curly condition

  • Wigs and hairpieces-presents a quick and effective method of styling

  • Curling Iron Manipulations wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Method of holding the iron is a matter of personal preference

  • Choose one-greatest ease, comfort, and control of movement

  • Practice opening and closing at regular intervals

  • Practice releasing the hair with quick, clicking movements

  • 3. Practice guiding the strand to the center of the curl wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • 4. Use the comb to protect the client’s scalp from burns

  • Other Types of Curls

  • Spiral curl-curling the hair while winding the strand around the rod

  • End curls-for short hair wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Volume Thermal Curls wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Used to create volume or lift

  • Volume-based thermal curls-maximum lift or volume

  • -curl is very high on base (135 degree angle)

  • Add: over-directed

  • Full-Based Thermal Curls wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Full volume

  • -125 degree (over-directed)

  • Half-based

  • -moderate lift or volume

  • -90 degree angle

  • Off-based

  • -slight lift or volume 70 degrees

  • Finished set-clip each curl in place until ready for styling

  • Safety Measures (3 needed for test) wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Use only after instructions

  • Keep irons clean

  • Do not overheat irons

  • Test temperature on tissue paper

  • Avoid burning yourself or client

  • Place in a safe place to cool

  • Heating conventional irons do not put handle too close to the heater

  • Be sure iron is properly balanced in heater wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Use hard rubber or non flammable combs

  • Celluloid combs must not be used- flammable

  • Do not use metal combs/too hot/burn scalp

  • Place comb between scalp and iron/prevent burns

  • Hair must be cleaned and completely dry

  • Do not allow ends to protrude over iron/fishhooks

  • Lightened, tinted, or relaxed hair-use gentle heat

  • Thermal Hair Straightening (Pressing) wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Temporarily straightens extremely curly or unruly hair with a heated comb

  • Three types: On test!!!!

  • Soft

  • -removes up to 50-60% of curl

  • -once on each side

  • Add -no pressure

  • Medium press wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • -removes up to 60-75% of curl

  • -once on each side

  • -with some pressure

  • Hard press

  • -removes 100% of curl

  • -twice on each side

  • Add -with pressure

    • Also called double press

Read: Caution box wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy /uploads/20...

  • Analysis of Hair and Scalp wound/improper technique will rough up the hair, making if frizzy

  • Before press, analyze condition of hair and scalp

  • If not healthy-give appropriate corrective treatments

  • If scalp skin disease-advise client to see a dermatologist

  • If hair shows signs of neglect-recommend a series of conditioning treatments

  • Analysis covers: during hair pressing

  • Wave pattern

  • Length

  • Texture (coarse, medium, fine)

  • Feel (wiry, soft, or silky)

  • Elasticity

  • Color

  • Condition

  • Condition of scalp

Read lists

  • Hair Texture during hair pressing

  • Coarse, extremely curly hair has qualities that make it difficult to press

  • Coarse-greater in diameter

  • Requires more heat and pressure

  • Medium curly-no special problems

  • -least resistant to hair pressing

  • Fine hair requires special care during hair pressing

  • -less heat and pressure

  • Wiry, curly hair may be coarse, medium, or fine, and feels stiff, hard and glassy

  • -very resistant to pressing

  • -use more heat and pressure

  • Scalp Condition during hair pressing

  • Classified as normal, tight, or flexible

  • Normal-proceed with analysis

  • If scalp is tight and hair coarse-press the hair in the direction it grows

  • Flexible scalp-difficulty-may not be able to press the hair satisfactorily

  • Record Keeping during hair pressing

  • Keep a record of the hair and scalp analysis

  • Include all pressing treatments

  • Question client about lightener, tint, gradual color (metallic), or other chemical treatments

  • Release statement (may not hold up in Pennsylvania)

  • Conditioning Treatments during hair pressing

  • Involve special cosmetic preparations for the hair and scalp, thorough brushing, and scalp massage

  • Usually results in better hair pressing

  • Pressing Combs

  • Two types-regular and electric

  • Constructed of good quality stainless steel or brass

  • Handle is made of wood/does not absorb heat


  • To temper a new pressing comb- during hair pressing

  • -heat the comb until extremely hot

  • -coat the comb in petroleum or pressing oil

  • -let cool down naturally

  • -run under hot water to remove the oil

  • Heating the Comb during hair pressing

  • After heating the comb, test it on a piece of light tissue paper (end wraps or sanex strip)

  • If paper scorches, allow comb to cool slightly before applying it to the hair

  • Cleaning the Comb during hair pressing

  • Will perform more efficiently if kept clean

  • Clean of loose hair, grease, and dust before and after each use

  • Intense heat keeps the comb sterile

  • To remove carbon-rub the outside surface and between teeth with a fine steel wool pad or fine sandpaper

  • Place metal portion in hot baking soda solution for 1 hour; rinse and dry

  • Pressing Oil or Cream during hair pressing

  • First apply pressing oil to hair

  • Products have these effects:

  • Makes hair softer

  • Prepare and condition the hair for pressing

  • Helps prevent the hair from burning or scorching

  • Helps prevent hair breakage

  • Condition the hair after pressing

  • Add sheen to pressed hair

  • Helps hair stay pressed longer

  • Reminders and Hints for All Pressing during hair pressing

  • (need 3 for test)

  • Good judgment=avoid damage

  • Client’s safety is ensured only when stylist observes every precaution

  • Avoid excessive heat or pressure

  • Avoid too much pressing oil

  • Avoid perfumed pressing oil-allergic

  • Avoid over frequently hair pressing

  • Keep comb clean at all times

  • Avoid overheating during hair pressing

  • Test temperature on paper before applying to hair

  • Adjust temperature to the texture and condition of the hair

  • Use comb carefully to avoid burning the scalp, skin, and hair

  • Prevent smoking and burning by drying the hair completely

  • Avoid excessive application of pressing oil

  • Caution Box back of neck

  • Two types of injuries:

  • Immediate

  • -burned hair that breaks off

  • -burned scalp causing temporary or permanent loss of hair

  • -burns on ears and neck that form scars

2. Not immediately evident back of neck

-skin rash if allergic to pressing oil

-breaking or shortening of the hair due to many frequent hair pressings

  • Special Considerations back of neck

  • Pressing fine hair

  • -less pressure

  • Add -less heat

  • Pressing short, fine hair

  • -extra care at hairline

  • -extra short. Comb should not be too hot

  • -comb causes accidental burns/painful/scars

  • Immediately apply 1percent gentian violet jelly to the burn back of neck

  • Pressing coarse hair

  • -apply enough pressure so hair stays straightened

  • Pressing tinted, lightened, or gray hair

  • -might require conditioning treatments

  • -gray hair can be particularly resistant

  • -moderately heated comb, light pressure

  • -avoid excessive heat/discoloration/breakage

  • Styling Long Hair back of neck

  • Updo-hairstyle with the hair arranged up and off the shoulders

  • Secured with implements like hairpins, bobby pins, and elastics

  • Special occasions back of neck... back of neck


Knot or Chignon back of neck

-true classic/popular for centuries

-created from simple ponytail

-dressed up with flowers or ornaments,or kept simple

-very straight and silky hair-set on hot rollers

-wavy or curly, blow-dry straight

-extremely curly-press first or leave for a textured-looking chignon back of neck...

Basic French twist (not in textbook) back of neck

-elegant, sleek look can go anywhere

-straight, fine hair set first

***All hair is in the twist

***Level 1’s set on wet set rollers first, then comb- out

***review pinning on page 501 back of neck

Pleat or Classic French twist back of neck

-for weddings and black-tie events

-shape is larger

-front is designed/more creative than basic twist

-inspect shape from every angle/well balanced and well proportioned

***Level 2’s set hot rollers, then comb-out, designing the front and sides

***Level 3’s no set required/ design the front/sides back of neck

  • Client Consultation back of neck

  • Make sure you understand what the client has in mind

  • Pre-bridal, come in with hairpiece to try several styles

  • Take photographs to help decide which she likes best

  • Keep the photo to duplicate style on her big day

  • Artistry of Hairstyling back of neck

  • Master basic styles

  • Create your own unique and attractive looks

  • Styling trends change quickly

  • Have a mannequin at home---Practice

  • Create looks in magazines-try new ideas and techniques

  • Every client presents creative possibilities