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Persuasion in the Interpersonal Context. Monica Luangrath & Melissa Green. Interpersonal Persuasion. One person is attempting to induce change in the belief, attitude, or behavior in one other person. Focuses on face-to-face interaction with others. Is purposeful and persuasive.

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persuasion in the interpersonal context

Persuasion in the Interpersonal Context

Monica Luangrath

&

Melissa Green

interpersonal persuasion
Interpersonal Persuasion
  • One person is attempting to induce change in the belief, attitude, or behavior in one other person.
  • Focuses on face-to-face interaction with others.
  • Is purposeful and persuasive.
how to convince people to do whatever you want
How to Convince People to do Whatever You Want
  • YouTube - How To Convince People To Do Whatever You Want
3 contexts of interpersonal persuasion
3 Contexts of Interpersonal Persuasion
  • Organizations
  • Sales
  • Interviews
persuasive efforts may be characterized as
Persuasive Efforts May Be Characterized As…
  • Dynamic – participants send and receive signals continuously and simultaneously, not static.
  • Interactive – participants influence each other, interdependent, each person assumes roles of both sender and receiver.
  • Proactive – involves the total persons beliefs, attitudes, values, social background, previous transactions, which all influence the interaction.
  • Contextual – environmental and situation factors influence the interaction.
  • Intense – content of the interaction is most often persona, intimate and revealing, risk of rejection, withdrawal, weakness.
8 variables of interpersonal persuasion
8 Variables of Interpersonal Persuasion
  • Verbal
  • Nonverbal
  • Power and Control
  • Compliance-Seeking Messages
  • Conflict
  • Gender Differences
  • Culture and Diversity
  • Leadership
organizations
Organizations
  • Corporate Communication Activities Include:
    • Public Relations, Investor Relations, Employee Relations, Community Relations, Advertising, Media Relations, Labor Relations, Government Relations, Technical Relations, Training and Employee Development, Marketing Communications and Management Communications
    • Internal and external activities
    • Informal and formal communication
    • Upward, downward, and lateral flow of communication
flow of communication
Flow of Communication
  • Research findings
    • People higher in the organization communicate more while performing their jobs than do people lower in the organization.
    • Job responsibilities significantly impact quality and direction of communication activities.
    • Communication within the organization is usually initiated by someone higher in the organization.
    • People of the same status are more likely to discuss problems and solutions between each other than with someone of higher status.
    • Job satisfaction, trust in superiors and mobility aspirations influence willingness to engage in upward communication.
    • Physical proximity results in more interaction.
three models of organization employee interaction
Three Models of Organization-Employee Interaction
  • Exchange Model – Organization incentives and rewards provide employee motivation for productivity, employee participation is limited, rules seldom changed.
  • Socialization Model – Organization actively persuades employees about the value of organizational goals and objectives, still little direct employee participation.
  • Accommodation Model – Employees actively participate in shaping organization rules and production goals. They attempt to maximize skills, abilities and unique characteristics of each employee. They become partners in the problem-solving and decision-making activities of the organization.
four approaches when dealing with superiors
Four Approaches When Dealing with Superiors
  • Ingratiating: employee is overly friendly and warm
  • Tactician: employee uses reason and evidence in support of statements and requests
  • Bystander: employee generally avoids contact with supervisor
  • Shotgun: employee relies on a variety of approaches

Positive interpersonal relationships are crucial to the very survival of individuals, teams and organization, especially when communicating with superiors.

From a strategic approach, Eisenberg & Goodall suggest the tactic of Managing Up – a performance that makes the boss look good. The best way to do this is by leaning how to read the supervisor’s needs and preferences and designing arguments to accomplish goals.

3 classifications of teams
3 Classifications of Teams
  • Project Teams – Organized around the design and development of new products or services.
  • Work Teams – Responsible for the entire task process that delivers a product or service to a client.
  • Quality-Improvement Teams – Focus on customer satisfaction and team performance evaluation leading to reduce costs.

Most employees in the U.S. work in some type of team based unit.

organizational roles
Organizational Roles
  • Through interaction with others we develop various organizational roles.
  • Within teams, individuals usually assume one of the three roles…
      • Task Role – members summarize and evaluate ideas, a major part in idea generation and performance progression.
      • Maintenance Role – members are active in reducing tension of conflict to maintain harmony and morale.
      • Self-Centered Role – harmful to teams, individuals dominates all aspects of the project and communication exchanges.
  • Successful teams exhibit mutual respect, high degree of cooperation and self monitoring behaviors that focus on others not self.
organizations1
Organizations
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkd1M2kXpXw&feature=related
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9_l9O1x284
sales
Sales
  • In a sense we are all salespeople
  • The basic appeals, strategies, and tactics of persuasion are essential to successful sales
  • There are multiple approaches to sales (below are 2):
    • Selling Formula Approach – Idea that there are certain product attributes that will be attractive to all individuals regardless of situation or context. Treats all customers alike, sales result form taking customer through a series of mental states: attention, interest, desire, and action.
    • Need-Satisfaction Approach – Assumes that purchases are made to satisfy needs. Requires greater conversation and persuasion skill because in order to make a sale, one must identify the customer’s needs and show hwo the product/services will meet those needs.
3 phases of the need satisfaction approach to sales
3 Phases of the Need Satisfaction Approach to Sales
  • Need Development Phase – salesperson encourages customer to discuss his/her needs while actively listening to the information.
  • Need Awareness Phase – salesperson talks more, repeating the customer’s needs and checks to see if customer confirms the info.
  • Need Fulfillment Phase – salesperson demonstrates how the product will fully meet the customer’s needs.
dan o hair and gustav friedrich s five basic rules of conduct for successful customer relations
Dan O’Hair and Gustav Friedrich’s Five Basic Rules of Conduct for Successful Customer Relations
  • Know the Customer
  • Take Responsibility for Customer Satisfaction
  • Avoid Unresponsive Behavior
  • Employ Effective Communication Skills
  • Treat Customers with Respect
ralph anderson s seven stage model of personal selling
Ralph Anderson’s Seven Stage Model of Personal Selling
  • Prospecting and Qualifying – identifying potential customers based on a set of criteria (financial capability, social rank, organizational authority, ect)
  • Planning the Sale – includes establishing objectives, choosing a persuasive strategy, planning for an effective and efficient meeting, preparing for customer’s reactions and displaying confidence and professionalism
  • Approaching the Prospect – includes first impressions, firmness of handshake, appearance
  • Making the Sales Presentation – includes articulating the features and benefits of the product/service
  • Negotiating resistance or Objections – try to turn objections into a positive, differentiate between valid about the product/service from excuses for avoiding a decision
  • Closing the Sale – (The Million Dollar Round Table (MDRT) has 7 basic rules for closing a sale:
      • Establish Credibility
      • Know your Product
      • Know your Client
      • Keep it Simple
      • Sell Concepts and Benefits
      • Communicate your Enthusiasm, Your Certainty and Commitment
      • Take a Chance, Ask for the Close
  • Servicing the Account – follows the saying, “it is easier and less expensive to keep customers than to win new customers
other successful selling techniques
Other Successful Selling Techniques
  • Boomerang Technique – turning an objection into a reason for buying a product
  • “Yes, but…” Technique – quickly following an objection with an advantageious or positive attribute of the product
  • Offset Technique – admits the objection is valid but then follows with a more superior point that more than compensates for the original objection
  • “Im Coming to That” Technique – something said by the sales person when they want to finish saying what they are saying before they deal with the objection made
  • Direct Denial Technique – attributing the objection to some misunderstanding or wrong interpretation of information
how to handle difficult selling situations
How to Handle Difficult Selling Situations
  • Let the Customer Talk
  • Reassure the Customer that their Concerns are Important and Will Be Heard
  • Do not Personalize the Issue
  • Acknowledge when the Customer is Correct
  • Apologize and Provide Immediate Corrective Action when you or the Company is at Fault
  • Ask the Customer for Suggestions on how the Problem/Issue Could be Avoided in the Future

Always Remember that Persuasion is Based on the Concept of Informed Choice; the Ethical Burden is on the Persuader to Ensure that Products are Fairly Represented!

sales1
Sales
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2cyNc7cP68I&feature=related
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E7F8VW0pr8g
    • Here’s a clip on how to use the “law of consistency” to persuade people. People like consistency because it gives them a level of comfort.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOjOMFXLo_E
interviews
Interviews
  • Definition by Charles Stewart and William Cash:
    • “An interactional communication process between two parties, at least one of whom has a predetermined and serious purpose, that involves the asking and answering questions.”

Or

    • “An interview is a formal communication transaction where one or both of the parties have specific behavioral objectives in mind.”
types of interviews
Types of Interviews
  • Informational
  • Employment
  • Appraisal
  • Counseling
  • And many, many more…

In most interviews, the same strategies and tactics are found as in other persuasive contexts, such as public speaking and advertising.

slide23
Example of When Face-to-Face Interview are most Beneficial as Opposed to Instantaneous Communication (e-mail, cell phones, and PDA’s)
  • If it is necessary to verify identity
  • If it is necessary to challenge/question information on the application
benefits of face to face interviews
Benefits of Face-to-Face Interviews
  • Valuable information can be revealed through non-verbal communication.
  • Responses during these interviews are often longer and more detailed.
  • Interviewees are more likely to share personal information.
several patterns for developing questions for an interview as the interviewer
Several Patterns for Developing Questions for an Interview as the Interviewer
  • Topical Pattern – questions flow subject to subject, which is the most common
  • Time Sequence Pattern – develops questions in some chronological order
  • Cause-to-Effect Sequence Pattern – possible causes of an issue are explored, followed by a discussion of effects
  • Problem-Solution Sequence – first there is an attempt to understand a problem and then explore possible solutions

The purpose of any pattern is to develop mutual understanding and possibly agreement!

tips for successful interviewing
Tips for Successful Interviewing
  • Keep Smiling, Be Enthusiastic and Honest
  • Make Frequent Eye Contact
  • Remain Positive
  • Less Can Be More
  • Keep Things Conversational
  • Be Prepared to Ask Questions
  • Take Time to Think Before You Respond
  • Don’t Ask About Time Off, Salary, or Benefits Until They Ask
  • Avoid Negative Comments About Former Employers/Colleagues
  • Prepare a Closing Statement/Argument
interviews1
Interviews
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RitEuTQGwXg&feature=related
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q6L_PvrWGpQ
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J67ykNNelt8
kathleen reardon s definition of interpersonal persuasion
Kathleen Reardon’s Definition of Interpersonal Persuasion
  • The behavior that takes place “when two or a few people interact in a way that involves verbal and nonverbal behaviors, personal feedback, coherence of behaviors, and the purpose of changing attitudes and/or the behaviors of others.”
exam discussion questions
Exam/Discussion Questions
  • Interpersonal Persuasion is one person attempting to induce change in the belief, attitude, or behavior in one other person and focuses on face-to-face interaction with others. T or F
  • What are the three contexts of Interpersonal Persuasion?
  • What is one benefit of face-to-face interviews?
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