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Persuasion in the Interpersonal Context. Monica Luangrath & Melissa Green. Interpersonal Persuasion. One person is attempting to induce change in the belief, attitude, or behavior in one other person. Focuses on face-to-face interaction with others. Is purposeful and persuasive.

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Persuasion in the interpersonal context

Persuasion in the Interpersonal Context

Monica Luangrath


Melissa Green

Interpersonal persuasion
Interpersonal Persuasion

  • One person is attempting to induce change in the belief, attitude, or behavior in one other person.

  • Focuses on face-to-face interaction with others.

  • Is purposeful and persuasive.

How to convince people to do whatever you want
How to Convince People to do Whatever You Want

  • YouTube - How To Convince People To Do Whatever You Want

3 contexts of interpersonal persuasion
3 Contexts of Interpersonal Persuasion

  • Organizations

  • Sales

  • Interviews

Persuasive efforts may be characterized as
Persuasive Efforts May Be Characterized As…

  • Dynamic – participants send and receive signals continuously and simultaneously, not static.

  • Interactive – participants influence each other, interdependent, each person assumes roles of both sender and receiver.

  • Proactive – involves the total persons beliefs, attitudes, values, social background, previous transactions, which all influence the interaction.

  • Contextual – environmental and situation factors influence the interaction.

  • Intense – content of the interaction is most often persona, intimate and revealing, risk of rejection, withdrawal, weakness.

8 variables of interpersonal persuasion
8 Variables of Interpersonal Persuasion

  • Verbal

  • Nonverbal

  • Power and Control

  • Compliance-Seeking Messages

  • Conflict

  • Gender Differences

  • Culture and Diversity

  • Leadership


  • Corporate Communication Activities Include:

    • Public Relations, Investor Relations, Employee Relations, Community Relations, Advertising, Media Relations, Labor Relations, Government Relations, Technical Relations, Training and Employee Development, Marketing Communications and Management Communications

    • Internal and external activities

    • Informal and formal communication

    • Upward, downward, and lateral flow of communication

Flow of communication
Flow of Communication

  • Research findings

    • People higher in the organization communicate more while performing their jobs than do people lower in the organization.

    • Job responsibilities significantly impact quality and direction of communication activities.

    • Communication within the organization is usually initiated by someone higher in the organization.

    • People of the same status are more likely to discuss problems and solutions between each other than with someone of higher status.

    • Job satisfaction, trust in superiors and mobility aspirations influence willingness to engage in upward communication.

    • Physical proximity results in more interaction.

Three models of organization employee interaction
Three Models of Organization-Employee Interaction

  • Exchange Model – Organization incentives and rewards provide employee motivation for productivity, employee participation is limited, rules seldom changed.

  • Socialization Model – Organization actively persuades employees about the value of organizational goals and objectives, still little direct employee participation.

  • Accommodation Model – Employees actively participate in shaping organization rules and production goals. They attempt to maximize skills, abilities and unique characteristics of each employee. They become partners in the problem-solving and decision-making activities of the organization.

Four approaches when dealing with superiors
Four Approaches When Dealing with Superiors

  • Ingratiating: employee is overly friendly and warm

  • Tactician: employee uses reason and evidence in support of statements and requests

  • Bystander: employee generally avoids contact with supervisor

  • Shotgun: employee relies on a variety of approaches

Positive interpersonal relationships are crucial to the very survival of individuals, teams and organization, especially when communicating with superiors.

From a strategic approach, Eisenberg & Goodall suggest the tactic of Managing Up – a performance that makes the boss look good. The best way to do this is by leaning how to read the supervisor’s needs and preferences and designing arguments to accomplish goals.

3 classifications of teams
3 Classifications of Teams

  • Project Teams – Organized around the design and development of new products or services.

  • Work Teams – Responsible for the entire task process that delivers a product or service to a client.

  • Quality-Improvement Teams – Focus on customer satisfaction and team performance evaluation leading to reduce costs.

    Most employees in the U.S. work in some type of team based unit.

Organizational roles
Organizational Roles

  • Through interaction with others we develop various organizational roles.

  • Within teams, individuals usually assume one of the three roles…

    • Task Role – members summarize and evaluate ideas, a major part in idea generation and performance progression.

    • Maintenance Role – members are active in reducing tension of conflict to maintain harmony and morale.

    • Self-Centered Role – harmful to teams, individuals dominates all aspects of the project and communication exchanges.

  • Successful teams exhibit mutual respect, high degree of cooperation and self monitoring behaviors that focus on others not self.

  • Organizations1




    • In a sense we are all salespeople

    • The basic appeals, strategies, and tactics of persuasion are essential to successful sales

    • There are multiple approaches to sales (below are 2):

      • Selling Formula Approach – Idea that there are certain product attributes that will be attractive to all individuals regardless of situation or context. Treats all customers alike, sales result form taking customer through a series of mental states: attention, interest, desire, and action.

      • Need-Satisfaction Approach – Assumes that purchases are made to satisfy needs. Requires greater conversation and persuasion skill because in order to make a sale, one must identify the customer’s needs and show hwo the product/services will meet those needs.

    3 phases of the need satisfaction approach to sales
    3 Phases of the Need Satisfaction Approach to Sales

    • Need Development Phase – salesperson encourages customer to discuss his/her needs while actively listening to the information.

    • Need Awareness Phase – salesperson talks more, repeating the customer’s needs and checks to see if customer confirms the info.

    • Need Fulfillment Phase – salesperson demonstrates how the product will fully meet the customer’s needs.

    Dan o hair and gustav friedrich s five basic rules of conduct for successful customer relations
    Dan O’Hair and Gustav Friedrich’s Five Basic Rules of Conduct for Successful Customer Relations

    • Know the Customer

    • Take Responsibility for Customer Satisfaction

    • Avoid Unresponsive Behavior

    • Employ Effective Communication Skills

    • Treat Customers with Respect

    Ralph anderson s seven stage model of personal selling
    Ralph Anderson’s Seven Stage Model of Personal Selling Conduct for Successful Customer Relations

    • Prospecting and Qualifying – identifying potential customers based on a set of criteria (financial capability, social rank, organizational authority, ect)

    • Planning the Sale – includes establishing objectives, choosing a persuasive strategy, planning for an effective and efficient meeting, preparing for customer’s reactions and displaying confidence and professionalism

    • Approaching the Prospect – includes first impressions, firmness of handshake, appearance

    • Making the Sales Presentation – includes articulating the features and benefits of the product/service

    • Negotiating resistance or Objections – try to turn objections into a positive, differentiate between valid about the product/service from excuses for avoiding a decision

    • Closing the Sale – (The Million Dollar Round Table (MDRT) has 7 basic rules for closing a sale:

      • Establish Credibility

      • Know your Product

      • Know your Client

      • Keep it Simple

      • Sell Concepts and Benefits

      • Communicate your Enthusiasm, Your Certainty and Commitment

      • Take a Chance, Ask for the Close

  • Servicing the Account – follows the saying, “it is easier and less expensive to keep customers than to win new customers

  • Other successful selling techniques
    Other Successful Selling Techniques Conduct for Successful Customer Relations

    • Boomerang Technique – turning an objection into a reason for buying a product

    • “Yes, but…” Technique – quickly following an objection with an advantageious or positive attribute of the product

    • Offset Technique – admits the objection is valid but then follows with a more superior point that more than compensates for the original objection

    • “Im Coming to That” Technique – something said by the sales person when they want to finish saying what they are saying before they deal with the objection made

    • Direct Denial Technique – attributing the objection to some misunderstanding or wrong interpretation of information

    How to handle difficult selling situations
    How to Handle Difficult Selling Situations Conduct for Successful Customer Relations

    • Let the Customer Talk

    • Reassure the Customer that their Concerns are Important and Will Be Heard

    • Do not Personalize the Issue

    • Acknowledge when the Customer is Correct

    • Apologize and Provide Immediate Corrective Action when you or the Company is at Fault

    • Ask the Customer for Suggestions on how the Problem/Issue Could be Avoided in the Future

      Always Remember that Persuasion is Based on the Concept of Informed Choice; the Ethical Burden is on the Persuader to Ensure that Products are Fairly Represented!

    Sales Conduct for Successful Customer Relations



      • Here’s a clip on how to use the “law of consistency” to persuade people. People like consistency because it gives them a level of comfort.


    Interviews Conduct for Successful Customer Relations

    • Definition by Charles Stewart and William Cash:

      • “An interactional communication process between two parties, at least one of whom has a predetermined and serious purpose, that involves the asking and answering questions.”


      • “An interview is a formal communication transaction where one or both of the parties have specific behavioral objectives in mind.”

    Types of interviews
    Types of Interviews Conduct for Successful Customer Relations

    • Informational

    • Employment

    • Appraisal

    • Counseling

    • And many, many more…

      In most interviews, the same strategies and tactics are found as in other persuasive contexts, such as public speaking and advertising.

    Example of When Face-to-Face Interview are most Beneficial as Opposed to Instantaneous Communication (e-mail, cell phones, and PDA’s)

    • If it is necessary to verify identity

    • If it is necessary to challenge/question information on the application

    Benefits of face to face interviews
    Benefits of Face-to-Face Interviews as Opposed to Instantaneous Communication (e-mail, cell phones, and PDA’s)

    • Valuable information can be revealed through non-verbal communication.

    • Responses during these interviews are often longer and more detailed.

    • Interviewees are more likely to share personal information.

    Several patterns for developing questions for an interview as the interviewer
    Several Patterns for Developing Questions for an Interview as the Interviewer

    • Topical Pattern – questions flow subject to subject, which is the most common

    • Time Sequence Pattern – develops questions in some chronological order

    • Cause-to-Effect Sequence Pattern – possible causes of an issue are explored, followed by a discussion of effects

    • Problem-Solution Sequence – first there is an attempt to understand a problem and then explore possible solutions

      The purpose of any pattern is to develop mutual understanding and possibly agreement!

    Tips for successful interviewing
    Tips for Successful Interviewing as the Interviewer

    • Keep Smiling, Be Enthusiastic and Honest

    • Make Frequent Eye Contact

    • Remain Positive

    • Less Can Be More

    • Keep Things Conversational

    • Be Prepared to Ask Questions

    • Take Time to Think Before You Respond

    • Don’t Ask About Time Off, Salary, or Benefits Until They Ask

    • Avoid Negative Comments About Former Employers/Colleagues

    • Prepare a Closing Statement/Argument

    Interviews as the Interviewer




    Kathleen reardon s definition of interpersonal persuasion
    Kathleen Reardon’s Definition of Interpersonal Persuasion as the Interviewer

    • The behavior that takes place “when two or a few people interact in a way that involves verbal and nonverbal behaviors, personal feedback, coherence of behaviors, and the purpose of changing attitudes and/or the behaviors of others.”

    Exam discussion questions
    Exam/Discussion Questions as the Interviewer

    • Interpersonal Persuasion is one person attempting to induce change in the belief, attitude, or behavior in one other person and focuses on face-to-face interaction with others. T or F

    • What are the three contexts of Interpersonal Persuasion?

    • What is one benefit of face-to-face interviews?