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Weather Radar Data

- Doppler Spectral Moments
- Reflectivity factor Z
- Mean Velocity v
- Spectrum width v

- Polarimetric Variables
- Differential Reflectivity ZDR
- Specific Differential Phase
- Correlation Coefficient hv
- Linear Depolarization Ratio LDR

Contributors to Measurement Errors*1) Widespread spatial distribution of scatterers (range ambiguities)*2) Large velocity distribution (velocity ambiguities)3) Antenna sidelobes 4) Antenna motion*5) Ground clutter (regular and anomalous propagation)*6) Non meteorological scatterers (birds, etc.)*7) Finite dwell time 8) Receiver noise*9) Radar calibration *--- these can be somewhat mitigated

Mitigation of Range Ambiguities

Uniform PRTs

Alternate batches of long (for Z) and short

(for velocity) PRTS.

El = 19.5o

Long PRTs (first PPI scan) for reflectivity ra>460 km;

Short PRTs (second PPI scan) for velocity, ra <200km; typically 150 km

7 Scans

= 5.25

= 4.3

5 Scans

= 2.4

= 1.45

4 Scans

= 0.5

Reflectivity Field of Widespread Showers(Data displayed to 460 km)

Velocity Field: Widespread Showers (5dB overlaid threshold; data displayed to 230 km)

Spectrum Width Field: Widespread Showers (20 dB threshold) data displayed to 230 km)

Echoes from Birds leaving a Roost; Spectrum Width Field data displayed to 230 km)

Measurements of Rain data displayed to 230 km)

- R(Z) relations
- Error sources
- Procedure on the WSR-88D

Reflectivity Factor data displayed to 230 km)

Rainfall Rate Relations

Marshall-Palmer:

Z = 200 R1.6

Z(mm6 m-3); R(mm h-1)

For WSR-88D:

Z = 300 R1.4 - convective rain

Z = 200 R1.2 - tropical rain

Rain Rate Error Sources data displayed to 230 km)

- *1) Radar calibration
- 2) Height of measurements
- *3) Attenuation
- 4) Incomplete beam filling
- *5) Evaporation
- *6) Beam blockage
- 7) Gradients of rain rate
- 8) Vertical air motions
- *9) Variability in DSD

Locations of Z Data used in the WSR-88D for Rain Measurement data displayed to 230 km)

Applications of Polarization data displayed to 230 km)

- Polarimetric Variables
- Measurements of Rain
- Measurements of Snow
- Classification of Precipitation

Polarimetric Variables data displayed to 230 km)

- Quantitative - Zh, ZDR, KDP
- Qualitative - |hv(0)|, , LDR, xv, hv
- Are not independent
- Are related to precipitation parameters
- Relations among hydrometeor parameters allow retrieval of bulk precipitation properties and amounts

Rainfall Relation R(K data displayed to 230 km)DP, ZDR)

R(KDP, ZDR) = 52 KDP0.96 ZDR-0.447

- is least sensitive to the variation of the median drop diameter Do

- is valid for a 11 cm wavelength

Scatergrams: R(Z) and R(K data displayed to 230 km)DP, ZDR)vs Rain Gauge

Sensitivity to Hail data displayed to 230 km)

R(gauges) data displayed to 230 km)

Area Mean Rain Rate and BiasR(gauges)-R(radar)

R(gauges)-R(Z)

R(gauges)-R(KDPZDR)

Fundamental Problems in Remote Sensing of Precipitation data displayed to 230 km)

- Classification - what is where?
- Quantification - what is the amount?

Weighting Functions data displayed to 230 km)

Partitions in the Z data displayed to 230 km)h, ZDR Space into Regions of Hydrometeor Types

Weighting Function for data displayed to 230 km)Moderate Rain WMR(Zh, ZDR)

Scores for hydrometeor classes data displayed to 230 km)

Ai= multiplicative factor 1

Wj = weighting function of two variables assigned to the class j

Yi= a variable other than reflectivity (T, ZDR, KDP, hv, LDR)

j = hydrometeor class, one the following: light rain,

moderate rain, rain with large drops, rain/hail mixture,

small hail, dry snow, wet snow, horizontal crystals,

vertical crystals, other

Class j for which Sj is a maximum is chosen as the correct one

Florida data displayed to 230 km)

Florida data displayed to 230 km)

Florida data displayed to 230 km)

Florida data displayed to 230 km)

Florida data displayed to 230 km)

Fields of classified Hydrometeors - Florida data displayed to 230 km)

Fields of classified Hydrometeor - Florida data displayed to 230 km)

Fields of classified Hydrometeors - Florida data displayed to 230 km)

Suggestions data displayed to 230 km)

- Data quality - develop acceptance tests
- Anomalous Propagation - consider “fuzzy logic” scheme
- Classify precipitation into type (snow, hail, graupel, rain, bright band) even if only Z is available
- Calibrate the radar (post operationally, use data, gauges, ..anything)

Specific Differential Phase at short wavelengths (3 and 5 cm)

- Overcomes the effects of attenuation
- Is more sensitive to rain rate
- Is influenced by resonant scattering from large drops

Suggestions for Polarimetric measurements at cm)=3 and 5 cm

- Develop a classification scheme
- Develop a R(KDP, ZDR) or other polarimetric relation to estimate rain
- Correct Z for attenuation and ZDR for differential attenuation (use DP)
- Use KDP to calibrate Z

- Uses “fuzzy logic” technique
- Base data Z, V, W used
- Derived fields (“features”) are calculated
- Weighting functions are applied to the feature fields to create “interest” fields
- Interest fields are weighted and summed
- Threshold applied, producing final algorithm output

- Features derived from base data are:
- Median radial velocity
- Standard deviation of radial velocity
- Median spectrum width
- “Texture” of the reflectivity
- Reflectivity variables “spin” and “sign”
- Similar to texture

- Computed over a local area

Clutter cm)

mean V

Clutter

texture Z

Weather

mean V

Weather

texture Z

Investigate data “features”

- Feature distributions
- AP Clutter
- Precipitation

- Best features have good separation between echo types

Median Radial Velocity

Median Spectrum Width

1

1

“Texture” of Reflectivity

Standard Deviation of Radial Velocity

0

0

“Reflectivity Spin”

F) Spin

100

0 50

G) Sign

“Reflectivity Sign”

-10 -0.6 0 0.6

10

Field of Weights for AP Clutter cm)

AP Clutter

AP Clutter

For median velocity field,

the weighting function is:

1

Interest Field

Radial Velocity

0

Radial Velocity

+3 m/s

+3 m/s

-2.3

0

2.3

Weighting functions are

applied to the feature field

to create an “interest” field

Values scaled between 0-1

Reflectivity cm)

Radial Velocity

Example of APDA

using S-Pol data

from STEPS

Polarimetric truth field

given by the

Particle Identification

(PID) output

APDA is thresholded

at 0.5

Good agreement between PID clutter

and APDA

PID

APDA

Clutter

Rain

20 June 2000, 0234 UTC 0.5 degree elevation

- Sample 4-hour forecast from the Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms’ Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) – a full-physics mesoscale prediction system
- For the Fort Worth forecast
- 4-hour prediction
- 3 km grid resolution
- Model initial state included assimilation of
- WSR-88D reflectivity and radial velocity data
- Surface and upper-air data
- Satellite and wind profiler data

R(Z) for Snow and Ice Water Content cm)

Snow fall rate:

Z(mm6m-3) =75R2 ; R in mm h-1 of water

Ice Water Content:

IWC(gr m-3)= 0.446 (m)KDP(deg km-1)/(1-Zv/Zh)

In Situ and Pol Measurements cm)

T-28 aircraft

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