The renaissance
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The Renaissance. World History Chapter 15. A New Beginning. Renaissance – means “rebirth” Self conscious revival of classic civilization and sense of creating something Scholars wanted to revive classical civilizations Viewed humans as 3 dimensional

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The Renaissance

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The Renaissance

World History

Chapter 15

A New Beginning

  • Renaissance – means “rebirth”

  • Self conscious revival of classic civilization and sense of creating something

  • Scholars wanted to revive classical civilizations

  • Viewed humans as 3 dimensional

  • Emphasis was on secular (spiritual) aspects of life

  • Individualism and versatility: important aspects of the Renaissance spirit


  • Humanism – means classical scholarship (studied original Latin or Greek manuscripts)

  • Educational reform put greater emphasis on classical scholarship

  • Dante Alighieri wrote The Divine Comedy

  • Leonardo da Vinci painted The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa

  • Michelangelo painted The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel

DanteAlighieri wrote Divine Comedy

Da Vinci’s Last Supper

Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa

Michelangelo's Last Judgment

Humanism continued…

  • Humanism began to spread north

  • Central figure of Humanism: Johann Reuchlin

  • Reuchlin was a German scholar that helped spread the influence of Humanism after he visited Italy

  • See VIDEO (approx 3 minutes)


  • Martin Luther: born in 1483

  • Planned to be a lawyer

  • Studied the bible; became a monk instead

  • Determined that faith alone not indulgences (which are pardons from punishment of sin as a way for the pope to raise money) was whether you were going to heaven or not

  • Was told by Pope Leo X to recant but he refused and Luther was declared a heretic, was excommunicated, and was declared an outlaw by Charles V of the HRE

The selling of indulgences. These people are paying a fee in order to receive a pardon for the sins they have committed.

Martin Luther’s reply when asked if he wanted to recant any of his ideas or works:"Unless I am convicted by scripture and plain reason - I do not accept the authority of the popes and councils, for they have contradicted each other - my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not recant anything for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. God help me. Amen."

Lutherans continued…

  • Luther translated the New Testament from Latin to German

  • Followers of Luther became known as Protestants because they protested the church

  • Many common people supported Protestantism because you didn’t have to pay for it and you can have a direct relationship with God

Lets talk about sects baby…

  • Many new sects (or religious groups) formed after Luther

  • Other sects that followed:

    • Baptists – Believers are baptized vs babies baptized

    • Church of England/Anglicans (English Protestants) – started because Henry VIII wanted a divorce

    • Calvinism – started by John Calvin (who followed Luther’s ideas but instead believed in predestination, or God has already determined your fate)

French Protestant John Calvin

Church reaction

  • Catholic church finally realized how much of a threat Protestantism was to their institution

  • Started the counter-Reformation

  • Tried to appoint only very devout and religious people as bishops and cardinals

  • Pope Paul III – began the Inquisition (punished heretics by burning them at the stake)

“Baptism by fire”

Device used in the Roman Inquisition

Pope Paul III

Council of Trent

  • A gathering of clergymen that determined policy and procedures for the church

  • Banned the sale of indulgences

  • Put more rules on the clergy

  • Emphasized ceremonies to honor God

  • Forgiveness came only from the church and had faith for salvation

  • Determined policy on Catholic views on scripture, original sin, baptism, sacraments, and the Eucharist

The Council of Trent

Scientific Discoveries

  • Witchcraft – belief in magic that led to science searching for answers to secrets (scientific method); started a science revolution

  • Notable names:

  • Copernicus – sun was the center of the universe, not Earth

  • Johannes Kepler – helped proved Copernicus’ ideas

  • Galileo – invented the telescope

  • Rene Descartes – in science, must prove everything

  • Isaac Newton – laws of motion and gravity


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