Cell respiration
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Cell Respiration. Converting Chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates to the chemical energy of ATP. Carbs. Complex Carbohydrates Starch Glycogen Simple Carbohydrates Glucose-blood sugar…..yeast cells Fructose-fruit sugar Sucrose-plant sugar Lactose-milk sugar.

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Cell Respiration

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Cell Respiration

Converting Chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates to the chemical energy of ATP.


Carbs

  • Complex Carbohydrates

    • Starch

    • Glycogen

  • Simple Carbohydrates

    • Glucose-blood sugar…..yeast cells

    • Fructose-fruit sugar

    • Sucrose-plant sugar

    • Lactose-milk sugar


Cellular Respiration

  • Respiration releases energy for use by the organism

  • Respiration involves four biochemical systems

    • Anaerobic-processes that occur without oxygen     a. Glycolysis     b. Fermentation

    • Aerobic-processes that occur only if there is enough Oxygen     a. Kreb's cycle      b. Electron transport system

  • Respiration pathways are different between prokaryotes


Overall (Aerobic) Equation

  • 1 glucose + 6 oxygen = 6 carbon dioxide + 6 water + energy

  • C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

  • C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 36 ADP + 36P  6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP

  • ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate


Cytoplasm:Location of GLYCOLYSIS (STAGE 1)

Anaerobic Respiration

Most primative form of respiration

2 ATP net yield

Mitochondrion: Energy Producing Organelle

Aerobic Respiration

Eukaryotic Cells

Kreb’s Cycle (STAGE 2)

Electron Transport (STAGE 3)

36 ATP net yield

In the Cell…


Stage 1: Glycolysis

Glucose (6C)

2 ATP

= ATP Phosphorylation

2 ADP

2 PGAL (3C)

2NAD+

2NADH + 2H+

3-Carbon Compound x2

4 ADP

4 ATP

2 molecules of

Pyruvic Acid (3C)


Stage 1: Glycolysis

Energy Balance:

Cost: -2 ATP

Gain: +4 ATP

Net: +2 ATP


Stage 1: Glycolysis

  • Recovery of NAD through fermentation: NAD is consumed through glycolysis and needs to be regenerated to keep glycolysis going…

    • In Animalia and Plante: NAD is replenished through lactic acid fermentation

    • In Fungi: NAD is replenished through alcohol fermentation


Lactic Acid Fermentation

Glycolysis

2 Pyruvic Acid

C-C-C

Glucose

C-C-C-C-C-C

NAD+

NADH + H+

Lactic Acid

C-C-C


Alcohol Fermentation

Glycolysis

Pyruvic Acid

C-C-C

Glucose

C-C-C-C-C-C

CO2

C

NAD+

NADH + H+

2 Carbon compound

C-C

Ethyl

Alcohol

C-C


Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol)

  • 2-carbon organic molecule

  • Single hydroxide (OH) makes it an alcohol

  • Mammals evolved to be able to digest only ethyl alcohol due to its presence in rotting fruits

  • When the fermentation of wine reaches a 12% Ethanol concentration the yeast cells die.


Efficiency of Glycolysis

  • calorie = an amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one ml of water by 1° C.

  • Kilocalorie= 1000 calories

  • 12 kcals required to phosphorylate one ADP molecule

Energy to make ATP

Efficiency of glycolysis

X

100

=

Energy Released by Complete Oxidation of Glucose


Efficiency of Glycolysis

Energy to make ATP

% Efficiency of glycolysis

X

100

=

Energy Released by Complete Oxidation of Glucose

2 x 12 kcal

X

100

=

686 kcal

=

3.5 %


Cell Respiration Overview


Heterotrophic Eukaryotic Cell


M

a

t

r

i

x

Mitochondria

Outer Membrane

Inner Membrane

Cristae (folds of inner membrane)

Matrix


The Kreb’s Cycle (Stage 2)If there is enough oxygen.. AND the cell is evolved to the point where it has mitochondria

  • Aerobic Respiration

  • Further breaks down the original bonds of glucose.

  • Begins with the release of CO2

  • Occurs in the MATRIX of the mitochondria


Kreb’s CycleInitial conversion of pyruvic acid..

Pyruvic Acid

C-C-C

Co A

(coenzyme A)

CO2

C

NADH + H+

NAD+

Acetyl CoA

C-C


Kreb’s Cycle (citric acid cycle)

CoA

Acetyl CoA

C-C

CO2

Citric Acid (6C)

NAD+

NADH + H+

2X

5-carbon compound (5C)

Oxaloacetic Acid (4C)

CO2

NADH+H+

ADP

NAD+

ATP

4-carbon compoud (4C)

4-carbon compound(4C)

FADH2

FAD


The Electron Transport Chain (Stage 3)

  • Aerobic Respiration Only

  • Occurs in the cristae of mitochondria.

  • FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) AND NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) bring electrons and hydrogen to the cristae of mitochondria.

  • High-energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed along a sequence of proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane until O2 finally accepts them and H2O is created.


The Electron Transport Chain (Stage 3)

NADH

NADH

Cytoplasm

Matrix

NADH

FADH2

NADH

NADH

NADH

NADH

NADH

NADH

FADH2

NADH


The Electron Transport Chain (Stage 3)

Cytoplasm

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

NAD

H

H

NAD

FAD

H

H

H

NAD

H

NAD

NAD

NAD

H

NAD

H

NAD

H

NAD

H

NAD

H

FAD

H

Matrix


The Electron Transport Chain (Stage 3)

Cytoplasm

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

e-

ATP

ATP Synthase

ADP+PO4

+4

O2+ 4

2H2O

Matrix


Efficiency of Glycolysis

Energy to make ATP

% Aerobic

Respiration

X

100

=

Energy Released by Complete Oxidation of Glucose

38 x 12 kcal

X

100

=

686 kcal

=

66%


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