Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures
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Chapter 5 Textual equivalence :thematic and information structures 篇章对等 : 主题结构与信息结构. 第 10 小组 林晓芳,赖素芳,苏丽清,王锦芬 尤垂珍,邱长根( reporter). 主要内容: (P.119-P.160). 概论 5.1 A general overview based on the Hallidayan approach to information flow 5.1.1 Thematic structure:: theme and rheme

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Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

Chapter 5Textual equivalence :thematic and information structures篇章对等:主题结构与信息结构

第10小组

林晓芳,赖素芳,苏丽清,王锦芬

尤垂珍,邱长根(reporter)


P 119 p 160

主要内容:(P.119-P.160)

  • 概论

  • 5.1 A general overview based on the Hallidayan approach to information flow

  • 5.1.1 Thematic structure:: theme and rheme

  • 1.Grammaticality vs. acceptability

  • 2.Text organization and development

  • 3.Marked vs. unmarked sequences

  • 1). Fronted theme

  • Fronting of time or place adjunct;

  • Fronting of object or complement;

  • Fronting of predicator

  • 2) .Predicated theme

  • 3). Identifying theme

  • 4). Preposed theme

  • 5). Postposed theme

  • 4.A brief assessment of the Hallidayan position on theme


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

  • 5.1.2 Information structure:

    given and new

  • 1). How are given and new

    signaled in discourse?

  • 2). How is givenness determined?

  • 3). Marked vs. unmarked

    information structure

  • 4). Marked information structure

    and marked rheme


Terms

TERMS

  • The Hallidayan Approach韩礼德学派方法

  • The Prague School Approach布拉格学派的方法

  • Functional Sentence Perspective功能句子观

  • Thematic and information structure主题结构与信息结构;

  • Given information & New information已知信息和新信息

  • Theme & Rheme 主位与述位, Clause 小句

  • Marked and unmarked theme标记主位与无标记主位

  • CD:Communicative dynamism交际动力

  • Linear arrangement线性排列即篇章背景下的语序

  • Linear dislocation(语序与交际功能之间的)线性错位


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

第五章 语篇对等:主题结构与信息结构

概论: The Hallidayan Approach

韩礼德学派

1、Thematic Structures主题结构

1)主位(theme)和述位(rheme)

根据Halliday(韩礼德学派)的论述,一个句子除可以按句法结构划分为语法上的主语、谓语等以外,还可以从语言交际功能的角度对话语进行语义上的切分,这就是主位(theme)与述位(rheme)。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

第五章 语篇对等:主题结构与信息结构

A.Theme主位:The theme is what the clause about.分句所谈论的东西。起着与上文承接,保持话语连续的定位作用。起着连接下文,作为下文开始的起点作用。

2) The definition of theme and rheme 定义

B. Rheme述位:说话人对于主位所阐述的内容,是谈话的目的,是分句中最重要的部分。交际过程中,主位(theme)多半是交际双方的已知信息(Given information),述位(rheme)则是发话人要传递的新信息,受话人的未知的新信息(new information)。

e.g.My brother(T)has got a new car. (R).

The car (T) is a Honda. (R).


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

1.电影,(你)去看吗?

  • theme(主位) 述位(rheme)

  • (As for )the film, (will )you go to see it?

    (Chinese topic) Theme rheme

  • You know the film? Will you go to see the film?

2. 汤姆呀,他昨天从自行车上摔下了。

  • Remember Tom? Well, he fell off his bike yesterday.

  • You know Tom? Well, he fell off his bike yesterday.


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

第五章 语篇对等:主题结构与信息结构

The topic of a clause in topic-prominent languages always occurs in initial position. In this respect, it coincides with theme in Halliday’s model. If initial position is reserved for theme and if topic always in initial position ,then theme and topic are presumably the same thing.

3) Topic & Theme话题与主位

在以话题为主的语言中,句子的话题总是位于句首。就这点而言,它与韩礼德模式的主位相一致。因此,如果句首是为主位而保留,并且话题又总在句首,那么两者大体是一回事。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

  • e.g.My brother has got a new Honda .

  • Honda (T) is made in Japan (R).


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

第五章 语篇对等:主位结构与信息结构

主/述位结构是从语篇(text)范围上来看的,它并不用来解释单个句子的结构 ,而主要是在整个语篇(信息流information flow)中句子与句子之间及句子内部的结构关系

4.主/述位结构与主谓结构的区别:`

(1)主位与中国式话题Theme & Chinese-style topic

汉语是一种注重话题的语言,是话题突出的语言(topic-prominent language)

英语、法语、德语注重主语是主语突出的语言(subject-prominent languages)

因此,西方语言中的主语译为汉语或其他一些东方语言时,不一定放在主位位置,述位也是如此


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

第五章 语篇对等:主位结构与信息结构

*Bad item:

Animals ,I advocate a conservation policy.

(Mandarin)

Example:

*Revised version:

Concerning animals, I advocate a conservation policy.

*Bad item:

This field, the rice is very good. (Lahu )

*Revised version:

About this field, the rice is very good.


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

第五章 语篇对等:主位结构与信息结构

Bad item:

The present time ,there are many schools. (Korean)

Example:

Revised version:

At the present time ,thee are many schools.

Bad item:

Fish, red snapper is delicious . (Japanese)

Revised version:

As for fish, red snapper is delicious.


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

(2)主位结构thematic structure:grammatically vs. acceptability 符合 语法性 vs.可接受性主位结构thematic structure主要用来考查语篇层面上句子组合的可接受性问题。它不像主谓结构那样是语法概念,我们在上下文中,各自符合语法的句子组合在一起并不一定具有可接受性或连贯性。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

  • e.g. Now comes the President here. It’s the window he’s stepping through to wave to the crowd. On his victory his opponent congratulates him.

  • →Now comes the President here. He is stepping through a window to wave to the crowd. He is congratulated by his opponent on his victory.


3 thematic structure text organization and development

(3)主位结构Thematic Structure:Text organization and development 语篇组织与发展

A.一系列相同的主位theme 使语篇保持连贯、前后一致

例:When I was fourteen, I earned money in the summer by cutting lawns, and I had built up a body of customers within a few weeks.

高频使用“I”作为主位,使观点连贯。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

B. 在这一层次上的语篇分析(thematic analysis)中,译者可能碰到的情况及策略a、译文与原文的主题结构对等,这时可保留原文主题结构,使译入语尽量贴近原文。 例:八达岭这一段是1957年修复的,是长城的典型建筑,平均高7.8米,底部宽6.6米,顶部宽5.8米。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

  • The section at Badaling was restored in 1957, and it is typical in its structure. It is 7.8 meters high on an average, 6.6 meters wide at the bottom, and 5.8 meters wide on the top.


B target text original

b、译文target text与原文original主题结构不对等。

译者不可能总循着原文的主题结构行文(thematic patterning),由于两种语言在语序、句子重心、自然措辞等方面的差异,原文的主位结构有时只得放弃。重要的是译文应有其自身主位结构,读起来自然顺畅,不损害原文信息结构(information structure)。

You may find that you cannot preserve the thematic patterning of the original without distorting the target text.


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

e.g.

  • 戴尔公司严格执行自上而下的一条线管理和自下而上的一条线汇报制度,确保了公司高效率快节奏的运转。

  • The strict management and report system have been carefully enforced, which ensures Dell Corporation to run efficiently.

  • 析:原文“戴尔公司”是主位,而译文中的主位却变成了“the strict management and report system”。这样更能突出重点信息,因为读者更关心“戴尔”公司的一系列管理体制和方法,而非“戴尔公司”本身。


2 thematic structure marked vs unmarked theme

2.Thematic Structure: marked vs. unmarked theme 无标记主位与标记主位

(1)Definitions定义A.无标记主位unmarked theme: 充当分句成分同时又充当分句的主位 时,这样的主位叫无标记 主位(unmarked theme) 英语中,表达句子语气的那个成分是无标记主位

e.g.


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

  • 1陈述句declarative clauses中的主语

    Janesaid nothing .

  • 2 特殊疑问句interrogative clauses中的特殊疑问代词 `

    Whatdid Jane say?

  • 3 一般疑问句(polar question)中的助动词

    DidJane say anything?

  • 4 祈使句(imperative clause)中的动词

    Saysomething.


B marked theme

B.Marked Theme 标记主位:

  • Definition:在语言学上把不按正规语序排列的主语叫标记主位,把它作为话题或谈话的开始,起到强调和突出的作用。

  • Tom ,she likes best.(宾语作主位)William ,his name is.(表语作主位)


2 three main types of marked themes

(2)Three main types of Marked Themes三种主要句式中的标记主位

A. Fronted Theme前置句中的标记主位

由于语篇结构粘连性的需要,我们有时要把通常不放在句首的成分前置,使该成分成为句子的标记主位。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

a.时间、地点状语的前置Fronting of time or place adjunct

为了语篇发展的需要,有时要把状语前置,使之处于主位的位置。e.g.:

In China the book received a great deal of publicity.

在例句中突出了“In China”这个地点状语。

e.g.: Last week I flew to New York on business, two days later I went to London and yesterday I came back.

该句用“Last week”“two days later”“yesterday”充当句子的标记主位,来反映事件发生的先后顺序,实现句子的自然衔接。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

b. 宾语或补语的前置Fronting of Object or Complement

英语中,宾语和补语的前置与状语相比更为突出,因为状语的位置是较为自由的而宾语、补语的位置相对固定。e.g: His new car I drove yesterday.

在英语中由于受内部句法(syntax)规律的制约,前置的宾语只能放在主语前面,而不能在主谓之间。

如我们可说 Beans I like. 但不能说 I beans like


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

c. 谓语动词的前置Fronting of Predicator

在英语中谓语动词的前置是比较少见的,它不仅需要重新安排从句中其它成分的位置,还要对动词词组的形式作一些调整。

e.g: I thought they would be complaining and complaining they were.

我想他们会抱怨,他们也确实在抱怨。

e.g: Out rush the husband and his wife.

这里把“rush out”这个动词词组变成了“out rush”.


It structure cleft structure it be

主要是指“it-structure”(也称分裂结构cleft structure)中的主位。通常以it开头后接be动词+被强调的成分,使该成分位于靠近句首的位置,成为句子的标记主位。

B. Predicated Theme in It-structure.

强调句/分裂句中标记主位


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

  • e.g: Linda offered me a nice present.可分裂为:It was Linda who offered me a nice present. It was me that Linda offered a nice present. It was a nice present that Linda offered to me.在这种分裂句中,真正的主位是be动词后的强调成分,it只是起了一个形式主语的作用。


3 a brief assessment of the hallidayan position on theme

3、 A Brief Assessment of the Hallidayan Position on Theme韩礼德学派:主题观

韩礼德的主题观点(thematic structure)反映了英语这种单词顺序相对固定的语言的属性,也反映了它对汉语的研究,汉语是一种拥有一类总是放在句首的特殊主题的语言(topic-Prominent)。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

(1)话题突出性语言和主语突出性语言

A. Topic-Prominent language: a language in which the grammatical units of topic and comments are basic to the structure of sentences.

以主位和述位结构为句子结构基本单位 的语法单位的语言称为话题突出性语言。汉语是话题突出性语言,因为主位-述位结构的句子是汉语中最普通的一类。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

例如:

那棵树叶子大,所以我不喜欢。

that tree (Chinese topic) \leaves \big\so \I don’t like

I. As for that tree,the leaves are big, so I don’t like( it).

(theme) (rheme)

(主位) (述位)

II. As for that tree,the leavesare big. They are easily blown away by the strong wind.

(theme) (rheme)

(主位) (述位)

III. The leaves on the treeare big. I don’t like them.

(theme) (rheme)

(主位) (述位)


B subject prominent language

B、主语突出的语言Subject-Prominent language:

a language in which the grammatical units of subject and predicate are basic to the structure of sentences and in which sentences usually have subjective-predicate structure.

指这样一种语言,即主语和谓语是句子结构中最基本的语法单位,而且句子一般都是具有主-谓结构。英语是一种主语突出性语言,如下的句子是最普遍的一类:

I (T) have already seen Peter (R)(我已见过彼得)

(主语) (谓语)


Information structure given and new

(二)Information Structure: Given and New 信息结构:已知信息和新信息

1、信息结构:运用词序、语调、重音及其其他方式表明句子所表达的信息该如何被理解。

2、信息结构通过以下方式来实现:

(1) 已知信息(Given Information):说话者认为听话者已经知道的那部分信息;未知信息(New information)::说话者认为听话者不知道的新信息;

(2)区分已知信息(Given )与未知信息(New ):对此,可以通过一个词重读另一个词不重读的方式来表示


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

Information Structure: Given and New 信息结构如何区分已知信息与未知信息

例如:

What’s happening tomorrow?

We are climbing Ben Nevis. New

What are we doing tomorrow?

We areclimbing Ben Nevis Given New

此外,就顺序而言, 已知信息可以在新信息之前出现,也可以在新信息之后出现。


3 how are given and new information signaled in discourse

3.How are given and new information signaled in discourse语篇中已知信息和新信息的标志

(1)通过语调群和重音判断

1)韩礼德认为,句子的信息结构是由语调决定的

2)每个信息单位(information unit)必须包含一个未知信息(new information),另外还可以包括一个已知信息(given information)

3)一个信息单位中的语调核心重音,落在承载未知信息的语言成分上

下面例子中,“//”表示一个语调群, “___”表示重读

e.g: //I haven’t seen you for ages//

seen 是新信息


2 surrounding context

(2)通过上下文(surrounding context)判断

1)重读(tone accent)通常出现在句末,这样很难区分已知成分和未知成分的界限,通过上下文就很容易判断

e.g. In this job, Anne, I have been working very hard .

//Now I did it.//

Given New

2) 重读只适用于口语中,所以在书面语中,通过上下文判断已知和未知成份就显得尤为重要。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

(3) In both spoken and written English definiteness generally associated with given information and indefiniteness with new information.

不管口语中还是书面语中,确指的一般是已知信息(GIVEN)不确指的是未知信息(NEW)

e.g: The girl walked into the room.

“the girl” 表明上文已提到,是已知信息(Given)

A girl walked into the room.

“a girl” 表明语篇 中第一次提到,是未知信息(New)


4 syntax

(4) 通过句法(syntax)结构判断

1)从语法角度讲,不管口语中还是书面语中,已知信息(Given information)一般从属于其他信息

e.g: Heseltine’s appointment as Minister of the Environment came as no surprise. Given

若是新信息,则应处于表语位置:

Heseltine’s has been appointed as Minister of the Environment. This came no surprise. New


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

2) Because stress is not available in written language ,intricate syntactic devices have to be used to perform a similar function .For example ,one of the most important functions of cleft and pseudocleft structures in English is to signal information status .In cleft item in rheme position is presented as given.

书面语中不存在重读,可以通过复杂的句法来判断,比如主裂句(It-structure)和假裂句( Wh-structure)。在主裂句中,处于主位的是新信息,而述位的是已知信息


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

  • e.g.:

    And yet there are some customers who in their search for a suitable material prefer to study complex tables of technical data. It is for such customers that we have listed the properties of Matroc’s more widely used material.

    (we have listed the ….for customers 是已知信息,such customers为新信息


3 syntax

3)只有很好利用句法(syntax)结构判断已知信息和新信息的功能,翻译中才不会出现一些不必要的转换。

4)在书面语中,还可以通过标点符号判断

e.g.: He was waving to the girl who was running along the platform. (Given Information)

限制性定语从句用来修饰这个女孩,所以这句中不出现新信息。

He was waving to the girl, who was running along the platform . (New information)

非限制性定语从句用于补充说明,是新信息。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

(5)Different languages use different devices for signaling information structure and translators must develop a sensitivity to the various signaling systems available in the language they work with.

不同语言有不同的判断标准,所以翻译者对各种标志体系要特别敏感。


4 conclusion

4 Conclusion小结: 主题结构与信息结构

(1)主位结构由主位+述位构成;信息结构包括已知信息和未知信息。

(2)区别:

A. 主位-述位表现形式是线性排列次序(linear arrangement),而信息的表现形式是声调(tone)。

e.g. (what is the girl doing?)

a. Sheis cleaning the window.

主位 述位

b. She iscleaning the window.

已知信息 未知信息


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

B. 在主题结构(thematic structure)中,主位总是先于述位;在信息结构(information structure)中,已知信息一般先于未知信息,但也有未知信息比已知信息先出现的情况。

(Who did John meet?)

a. John (T) metMary (R).

Given New

(Who met Mary?)

b. John(T) met Mary(R).

New Given

判断某一词语是否传递新信息,有时可以从是否可省略这方面进行。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

D. Theme & Rheme 主位—述位是以发话者为中心的 (speaker-oriented), 主位(theme)指发话者讲话的起点,交际内容的出发点,一般由句首成分体现;述位(rheme)指发话者围绕起点,交际的内容。

已知—未知信息则是以受话者为中心的(listener-oriented), 已知信息(Given message)指受话者从特定的语境(context)中了解的内容,未知信息指受话者还不知道的内容。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

由于信息中心落在述位(rheme ),在无标记信息结构(unmarked information structure)中已知信息(given information)先于未知信息(new information),无标记主位结构(unmarked thematic structure)主位先于述位,这就造成有时主位与已知信息一致,述位与未知信息一致。

所以有的语言学家把主题结构(thematic structure) 与信息结构(information structure)融合起来。


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

Bibliography参考文献

胡壮林, 《语言学教程》。北京:北京大学出版社

陈宏薇,《汉英翻译基础》。上海:上海外语教育出版社

谭载喜,《西方翻译简史》。 商务印书馆

黄国文, 1988,《语篇分析概要》。湖南教育出版社

郭著章等,《英汉互译实用教程》。武汉:武汉大学出版社

胡壮麟, 1994,《语篇的衔接与连贯》。上海外语教育出版社朱永生 ,《英汉语篇衔接手段对比研究》。上海:上海外语教育出版社

http://sfs.scnu.edu.cn/hehx/MAKH/systemics/systemics.htm

韩礼德专业学习网站(华南师大外语学院)


Chapter 5 textual equivalence thematic and information structures

以己之昏昏,使人昭昭?

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