Review Sheet
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 36

Review Sheet Final Exam PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 42 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Review Sheet Final Exam. Scientific Method. Know the definition of the following. Be able to identify these in an experiment. a. Problem. is what you are trying to solve. is an educated guess. b. Hypothesis. c. Control group. is part of the experiment that remains constant.

Download Presentation

Review Sheet Final Exam

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Review sheet final exam

Review Sheet

Final Exam

Scientific Method

Know the definition of the following. Be able to identify these in an experiment.

a. Problem

is what you are trying to solve.

is an educated guess.

b. Hypothesis

c. Control group

is part of the experiment that remains constant.

d. Experimental group

is part of the experiment being tested.

e. Variable

is the factor being tested.

f. Procedures

are the steps taken in an experiment.

g. Conclusion

answers the problem.


Review sheet final exam

Classification

What is classification?

Classification is separating organisms into groups

according to similarities and differences.

What are the 5 kingdoms?

Animals, Plants, Moneran, Protist, Fungi

Know the characteristics of each kingdom AND examples of organisms in each kingdom

Plant

Animal

Moneran

Multicellular

Makes own food

(autotroph)

Multicellular

Does not make own food

(heterotroph)

Unicellular

Some make own food

Some don’t


Review sheet final exam

Fungi

Protist

Multicellular/ Unicellular

Does not make their own food.

(heterotroph)

Unicellular/Multi

Some make their own food.

(autotroph)

Some do not make their own food.

(heterotroph)

What is the main difference between plants and fungi?

Fungi cannot make

their own food.

What is the difference between members of the plant and members of the

animal kingdom?

Plants make their own food.


Review sheet final exam

Body temperature changes with the

environment. Animals must change

locations to maintain homeostasis.

What does coldblooded mean?

fish, reptiles, amphibians

Give examples of coldblooded animals

What does warm-blooded mean?

Body temperature does not change with

the environment.

Give examples of warm-blooded animals

birds and mammals


Review sheet final exam

Give the characteristics of the following classes of animals and give examples

mammals

birds

reptiles

feathers, hollow

bones

Hair or fur

give birth to live

young

dry, scaly skin

lay eggs on land

robin, owl, eagle

Humans, dogs, cats,

Lions, whales, bats

lizards, snakes, turtles

fish

amphibians

scales and gills

slimy skin, spend part

of life in water and part on land

perch, trout, salmon,

catfish, bass

newts, frogs, salamanders


Review sheet final exam

Homo sapiens

What is the scientific name of humans?

Cells, Organization and Cell Processes

Know the definitions of the following

brain (nerve) cell

a. Cell

is the smallest part of a living thing.

b. Tissue

is a group of similar cells that work together.

brain tissue

c. Organ

is a group of tissues that work together.

brain

is made of organs that work together.

d. Organ system

nervous system

e. Organism

is made of organ systems that

that work together.


Review sheet final exam

What are the functions of the following cell parts

a. Nucleus

Is the control center of the cell,

controls all cell activities.

Is a tube-likepassageways

that transport proteins.

b. Endoplasmic reticulum

c. Mitochondria

is the “powerhouse of the cell”

because it produces energy.

d. Cell wall

is located outside the cell membrane in a plant cell-

it supports and protects the plant cell.

surrounds outside of the cell –

it allows materials to pass

in and out of the cell.

e. Cell membrane


Review sheet final exam

cell wall

vacuole

chloroplast

f. Vacuoles

store food, water and wastes.

g. Chromosomes

are located in the nucleus and contains

genes that control traits.

h. DNA

is a molecule that is shaped like a double helix.

It contains the genetic code and is located

in the nucleus.

List 3 differences between plant and animal cells

Plant cells have cell walls, chloroplasts and large vacuoles.


Review sheet final exam

Know the definition of the following cell processes

a. Diffusion

is movement of materials from areas of high

concentration to areas of low concentration.

b. Osmosis

is the diffusion of water.

c. Plasmolysis

is the loss of water by a cell causing

the cell to shrink.

Give examples of osmosis

Plants wilt when placed in salt water

because water diffuses out of cell

by osmosis.

gummy bear in

fresh water

Give examples that would result in the condition of plasmolysis

gummy bear in salt water


Review sheet final exam

2 chromosomes

1 chromosome

Give examples of diffusion.

Iodine diffuses into dialysis tubing.

Explain the relationship of a cell membrane pore to the size of a molecule that is able to enter the cell.

The molecule must be small enough to fit through pore.

Cell Division

What is meiosis?

Cell division that results in ½ the number of chromosomes.

Meiosis produces sex cells with 1/2 the number of chromosomes of a

body cell.

In humans, meiosis results in sex cells with how many chromosomes?

23


Review sheet final exam

2 chromosomes

2 chromosomes

2 chromosomes

What is mitosis?

Mitosis is cell division which results in a cell with the

same number of chromosomes as the original cell.

Mitosis results in body cells with the same number of chromosomes

as the original cell.

How many chromosomes are in a human body cell?

46


Review sheet final exam

Characteristics of Life

List the characteristics of living things

metabolism (ingestion, digestion, respiration, excretion)

movement

reproduction

grow and development

made of cell(s)

respond to a stimulus

Needs of Living Things: FESWOP: Food for energy,

shelter and space, water, oxygen and proper body temp.


Review sheet final exam

Sun

(cellular respiration)

Organisms combine O2with sugar to get energy.

By which life process do organisms continue to maintain their existence?

reproduction

What is the ultimate source of energy for all living things?

Metabolism is all the chemical activities that occur

in an organism.

What is metabolism?

What influences metabolism?

diet

exercise

hormones


Review sheet final exam

Bacteria and Viruses

What are the 3 shapes of bacteria?

spiral (spirillus)

round (coccus)

rod (bacillus)

What conditions do bacteria favor?

warm temperatures, high moisture, food

Why are some bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics?

Cell walls have

mutated to make

antibiotics ineffective.

What is needed for bacteria to reproduce?

proper temperature, moisture,

food source

**** does NOT need a living cell to reproduce

a host – a living cell

What is needed for viruses to reproduce?

Explain ways that bacteria are helpful and harmful

used in food (helpful)

cause disease (harmful)

Are antibiotics used to fight bacteria or viruses?

bacteria


Review sheet final exam

Reproduction

Explain the difference between asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.

Asexual

requires one parent and offspring are identical to parent.

Sexual

requires two parents, offspring not identical to parent

causing a variety of traits within a species.

egg + sperm unite

What is fertilization?


Review sheet final exam

chlorophyll

O2 + food

CO2 + H2O

sunlight

Stems show positive.

They bend toward light.

Roots show negative.

They grow away from light.

Plants

Explain the process of photosynthesis.

In the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight, plants take in

carbon dioxide from the air and water from the ground. They

produce oxygen (released into the air) and make food (glucose).

Response of a plant to a stimulus.

What is a tropism?

What is a phototropism?

Response of a plant to light.

What plant parts exhibit positive or negative phototropism?


Review sheet final exam

What is geotropism?

Geotropism is a plant ‘s response to gravity.

Stems show negative geotropism,

grow upward away from the Earth.

Roots show positive geotropism,

grow downward toward Earth.


Review sheet final exam

Human Biology

What is the function of the skeletal system?

Support, protection and

movement

What are ligaments?

Ligaments are tissues that attaches bone to bone.

What are tendons?

Tendons are tissue that attaches muscle to bone.

What are joints?

A joint is where 2 or more bones meet.

What is cartilage?

Cartilage is tissue that cushions and reduces friction.

Where is cartilage located?

ears, nose, between vertebrae and at joints

Fixed joint

cranium

Ball and socket joint

Hinge joint

Ball and socket joint

Gliding joint

Hinge joint

Gliding joint


Review sheet final exam

What is the function of the muscular system?

Movement and flexibility

What is skeletal muscle?

Skeletal muscles are connected to bones by tendons and move the body.

Work in pairs: when one contracts the other relaxes.

What is smooth muscle?

Located in the digestive

and respiratory system

What is cardiac muscle?

Located in the heart

Give a definition of voluntary muscle

Muscles that are under your control.

Examples

arms, legs, neck

Muscles that are not under your control.

Give a definition of involuntary muscle

Examples

digestive, cardiac


Review sheet final exam

What is the function of the Circulatory System?

Transports materials and oxygen

to the cells and carbon dioxide

from the cells.

How many chambers in the human heart?

4

What are veins?

Veins are vessels that carry

blood to the heart.

What are arteries?

Arteries are vessels that carry

blood away from the heart.

What are capillaries?

Very thin (one cell thick) walled vessels that

connect arteries to veins.

In bone marrow

Where are blood cells made?


Review sheet final exam

What is the substance in red blood cells that

carries oxygen?

Hemoglobin

Fight Infection

What do white blood cells do?

What do platelets do?

Platelets are involved in clotting of blood.

What is a pulse?

Measure of the heartbeat or heart rate per minute


Know where the following parts of the heart are located and what they do

Know where the following parts of the heart are located and what they do:

Aorta

Is the largest artery that carries blood away from the heart.

takes blood from the heart to the lungs.

Pulmonary artery

Right ventricle

pumps blood to the lungs.

Left ventricle

pumps blood to the body.

Inferior vena cava

takes blood from the lower body to the heart.

Superior vena cava

takes blood from the

upper body to the heart.

Pulmonary vein

takes blood from the lungs

to the heart.


Review sheet final exam

Lung

Lung

The general

pathway

of blood is heart

to lungs to heart

to body.


What is the function of the nervous system

Sends and receives messages and

coordinates other body systems

What is the function of the nervous system?

What is the main job of the brain?

Brain sends and receives

messages.

What do the following parts of the brain control?

Cerebellum

controls movement

and balance.

Cerebrum

is the largest part of the brain.

(thinking, reasoning,

hearing, seeing)

medulla

Medulla

controls heartbeat,

breathing, and

blood pressure.


Review sheet final exam

What do spinal nerves do?

Nerves take impulses to and from the

spinal cord, to the body and

spinal cord.

What is the job of the spinal cord?

Spinal cord transfers impulses

to and from brain.

Know the following about a reflex act. Be able to recognize on a diagram.

What is a stimulus?

Change in environment

interneuron

What does the sensory neuron do?

Picks up

stimulus

motor

What does the interneuron do?

Transfers impulse

from sensory

to motor neuron

stimulus

response

sensory

Where is it located?

Spinal cord

What does the motor neuron do?

Causes response.

What is a response?

An action (what occurs)


Review sheet final exam

What is digestion?

Digestion is breaking down of food into nutrients.

What are the organs of the digestion system?

Be able to label these on the diagram.

Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

Trace the path of food through the digestive system.

Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

What do the following organs of the digestive system

do?

Stomach

Mechanical digestion- churns food

Chemical digestion= gastric juices

and pepsin.

Large Intestine (colon)

removes water

from waste.

Small intestine

is where most digestion

absorption takes place.

Liver

produces bile.

Why would someone get diarrhea?

Large intestine does not absorb water

because waste is moving too quickly.


Review sheet final exam

B

B

BbBb

BbBb

Genetics

What is a phenotype?

Physical appearance

What is a genotype?

Gene makeup of an organism. (pair of letters)

What sex chromosomes does a male have?

XY

What sex chromosomes does a female have?

XX

Punnett

Square

b

B

B=black b=brown

Dominant=B

Recessive=b

Hybrid=Bb

b

B

BB

Bb

b

b

Bb

bb

Ratio 3:1

Black : brown

Probability of getting:

Black= ¾ = 75%

Brown= ¼ = 25%

Phenotype of offspring=

All black

Genotype of offspring=

4 Bb


Review sheet final exam

Ecology

Know the following definitions:

Producer:

Organism that can make its own food.

Feeds on other organisms

Consumer:

Herbivore:

Eats plants

Eats meat

Carnivore:

Eats plants and animals

Omnivore:

Decomposer:

Feeds on dead matter

and breaks it down

Energy Pyramid:

Shows the flow of energy through a food chain or web. Energy decreases as you go up.


Genetics

In guinea pigs black fur (B) is dominant over white fur (b).

  • Fill in the blanks in the Punnett square below to determine a cross between

  • a female hybrid (heterozygous) black guinea pig and male pure white

  • guinea pig.

Genetics

b

B

Phenotype:Phenotype:

Genotype :Genotype:

Phenotype: Phenotype:

Genotype:Genotype:

Black

White

b

bb

Bb

Black

White

b

Bb

bb


Review sheet final exam

2. If 4 offspring are produced from this cross, what is the ratio of black

to white in the off spring?

2

1

5

3

6

4

8

9

7

2:2

3. Are the black offspring hybrid (heterozygous) or pure (homozygous)?

Hybrid (heterozygous)

What is the % chance of getting white offspring in this cross?

50%

P is the allele for widow’s peak

p is the allele for straight line hair

Use the pedigree below to answer the questions.

5. How many generations are shown?

3

6. How many children did the parents

#1 and #2 have?

4

Pp

7. What is the genotype #1?

What is the phenotype

of #1?

Widow’s peak

8. What numbers are

hybrid (heterozygous)?

= male

1,2,5,7

= female

9. What numbers have straight line hair?

4,6,8,9

10. What number(s) most likely have the

genotype PP?

= recessive

trait

3

11. How many females have the recessive trait?

1

4

12. How many males have the dominant trait?


Review sheet final exam

The Microscope

What are the functions of the following parts of a microscope

ocular (eyepiece)

what you look through and 10X

coarse adjustment knob

focuses scanning (4X) and low power (10X)

fine adjustment knob

focuses high power (40X)

clips

holds slide in place

diaphragm

regulates amount of light

stage

where you place the slide

How do you determine the total magnification of a microscope?

multiply the ocular power by the lens power


Review sheet final exam

You are given the following: gummy bear, paper towel and a balance.

How would you determine the mass of the gummy bear?

Mass the paper towel, mass the paper towel and the gummy,

then subtract the mass of the paper towel.

pH Acid: 1-6

Base: 8-14

Neutral: 7


Review sheet final exam

nucleus

vacuole

chromosome

cell membrane

endoplasmic

reticulum (E.R.)

ribosome

vacuole

nucleus

cell wall

E.R.

mitochondria

chloroplast


Review sheet final exam

ocular

coarse adjustment knob

fine adjustment knob

body tube

arm

revolving nosepiece

high power objective

low power objective

stage

clips

diaphragm

light


Review sheet final exam

aorta

superior

vena

cava

salivary

glands

pulmonary

artery

liver

esophagus

left

atrium

inferior

vena

cava

valve

large

intestine

left

ventricle

rectum

right

atrium

right

ventricle


Review sheet final exam

sensory

neuron

motor

neuron

interneuron

cerebrum

cerebellum

medulla

spinal nerves

spinal cord

Asexual reproduction –

genetic material of

daughter cell is

identical to parent cell


  • Login