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Communication Technology UAMG3053. Week 4 & 5 Impact of “New Media”. Visual Communication. Visual Communication – any optically stimulating message that is understood by viewer (Lester). Visual Messages – any direct, mediated, or mental picture.

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Communication Technology UAMG3053

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Communication technology uamg3053

Communication Technology UAMG3053

Week 4 & 5

Impact of New Media

Visual communication

Visual Communication

  • Visual Communication any optically stimulating message that is understood by viewer (Lester).

  • Visual Messages any direct, mediated, or mental picture.

Our brain process three types of visual messages

Our brain process three types of visual messages

  • Mental: those that we experience from inside of our mind such as thoughts, dreams and fantasies.

  • Direct those that we see without media intervention.

  • Mediated those that we see through some type of print or screen (movie, television, computer), and medium

Visual process

Visual Process

  • The Visual Process = to see clearly is to think clearly (Aldous Huxley, The art of seeing).

To seeing clearly

To Seeing Clearly

  • First stage: Sense letting enough light enter your eyes so that you could see objects immediately around you.

  • Second Stage: Select to isolate and look at a specific part of a scene within enormous frame of possibilities that sensing offers. Selecting is a conscious, intellectual act.

  • Third Stage: Perceive try to make sense of what you select.

Communication technology uamg3053








Communication technology uamg3053

The more you know, the more you sense. The more you sense, the more you select. The more you select, the more you perceive. The more you perceive the more you remember. The more you remember, the more you learn. The more you learn, the more you know.

The more you know the more you see

The more you know, the more you see

  • Proposed by Aldous Huxley

  • Seeing is a complex process that involves the mind as well as the eyes

  • Clear seeing is the combination of how much you know and how much you feel at any particular moment

Communication technology uamg3053

  • The more you know, the more you see

  • Example: A ball player will look at a ball game differently that a newcomer. He or she might look at the angle of the ball, the technique of the players, and the signal of the team communication. The newcomer might only interested in the score of the game

Visual and communication

Visual and Communication

The studies Visual Communication

  • Visual Persuasion in Advertising

  • Public Relations

  • Journalism

  • Cartoon

  • Photography

  • Pictorial Stereotypes Gender, Race, Life style

  • Motion Picture

  • Television

Digital photography

Digital Photography

  • Shahira Fahmy and C. Zoe Smiths study Photographers Note Digitals Advantages, Disadvantages.

  • Qualitative Study of digital photography on participants of 2001 Picture of the Year International (POYi) contest.

  • First, email contact

  • Second, email questions

  • Third, Answer by email or telephone

Shooting digital

Shooting Digital


1. Able to stay in location longer


1. May leave assignments earlier

- Decrease the quality of journalistic coverage

- Tend to shoot less images

Digital darkroom

Digital Darkroom


  • Photographers have control over images on digital darkroom

  • Computer screen is more intimate easy to work

  • Better working environment- without chemical


  • Difficult to look at computer screen

  • Less intimate relationship with the work




  • More Organize


  • Limited Storage forced to delete images

  • Spend more time to burn CD and create archive

  • Images cannot represent the past

Issue of control

Issue of Control


  • Photographers time become more valuable and flexible

  • Photographers have more control over images


  • Photographers as editor deleting/screening

  • Limit the work of photojournalists

Picture editing

Picture Editing


  • More value to picture editor job


  • Picture Editors job might be replaced

  • Visual content and real work

    - images are products of a chain gatekeepers

    3. Less quality images

    - Loose picture editor second eyes opinion.

Interpersonal relationships

Interpersonal Relationships


  • Enhanced personal relationships

    - Photographers come in to newsroom to scan, edit

    - Physically present in the newsroom


  • Isolate photographers from newsroom transmit from location

  • In future, photographers might do not have to come in to the newsroom at all

Visual persuasion in public relations

Visual Persuasion in Public Relations

  • How it was reported might be more important that what it was reported

  • PR tries to influence news reporters and public opinion

  • Helps journalists identify important stories

  • PR in political campaign US presidential campaign

  • News editors prefer well-written and interesting news items

Communication technology uamg3053

6 PR chooses newspaper read and reread

7. PR events staged to attract media attention

8. TV- persuasive impact of visual communication can be exploited The Super bowl commercial

9. Cable provides specialize audiences

10. Guess appearances TV shows

11. Video News Release

12. Expanded news releases - informercials

Culture shock

Culture Shock

  • The difficulties that you experience as you integrate into a new society can be a result of what is termed culture shock

  • Living in a new culture can exhilarating, personally rewarding, and intellectually stimulating. It also can be frustrating.

  • Those who doesnt maintain an open mind, and doesnt invest any effort trying to understand a foreign culture, is always going to be in a state of shock.

Communication technology uamg3053

  • Based on a study in Hong Kong which observed five values among several families.

  • Foster continuous contact among family members, save time, nurture family values, tie into the pride felt by Hong Kongs people as they joined mainland China and extend childrens education efforts

  • Related technology products were introduced to these families such as

Communication technology uamg3053

  • Thinktank would connect schools, teachers and parents, who will get information about the childs work at school.

  • TeacherLINK would connect teachers to parents seeking advice and

  • LogBook would link office-bound parents to children working on lessons at home.

  • Homebase system would provide a data link to household facilities

Communication technology uamg3053

  • Foodchain would promote shopping at any time. Fish and chicken would wear bar- coded tags, then specify when Foodchain employees should kill them and how should be prepared and where they should be delivered.

  • To figure out what will sell in a culture, companies should consider establishing a sort of living laboratory where they can study how people live, incorporate tools in their daily routines and what they need to create a better life at home and at work.

Real time transmission

Real Time Transmission


- techniques include placing several frames of video into a buffer on the client (user) computers hard drive, and then beginning to play the video, as more files are placed into the buffer

- Playing a video images, approximately real-time, without having to wait for an entire large video file to download

Communication technology uamg3053

Real Time cont.

- Instantaneous transmission

  • Satellite Broadcasting/Transmission

    - War zone report/news

    - Satellite conference

  • Internet Broadcasting/ Transmission

    - Streaming video via the Internet

  • Real-time weather data satellite and radar

Communication technology uamg30531

Communication Technology UAMG3053

Week 4 & 5

  • Impact of New Media

Journalism s challenges in real time

Journalisms Challenges in Real-Time

  • The dissemination of news is now instantaneous and global

  • News affects public perception and public policy

    No spin zone

  • Technological revolution is making the control of the flow of news and information and to spin it in their favor

  • Government actions are now tracked live on television

Communication technology uamg3053

  • Government become more transparent

  • Media and public as watchdog

  • Reduce media biases and manipulation of local media - as audiences (users) can easily compare the how the same news and information is handled by other media

  • To maintain control - Government and military might totally block access to news or held away front-line action

  • Enlist correspondent with self-censorship

Communication technology uamg3053

  • The responsibility is on the journalist.

  • Real-time report makes it more difficult for government to ensure their interpretation of events is the only version that is disseminated

  • The immediacy of news increases the impact of journalism and pressure government to react quickly

    E.g. Compared news on WWII, Bosnia, and Afghanistan and Iraq

Communication technology uamg3053

Reporting in real time

  • Technology provides journalist with more opportunities and risks

  • Reporting in real-time and the expensive equipments make journalist a target for attack

  • Media organizations have to ensure accuracy, objectivity, and freedom of bias

Huge responsibilities on journalist

Huge responsibilities on journalist

1. Cheaper equipment freelance war journalists

- Pressure to go to the frontline for marketable footage

- Paparazzi

2. Digital images easy to manipulate

- Burden to verify materials

3. Framing news events in their context

- e.g. airing a burning of US flag without commentary or using a old footage with new story

Outlook of modern journalism

Outlook of Modern Journalism

  • Roger Fidler Those newspapers that can blend credible, High-quality information with compelling, interactive presentations will have the opportunity to live longer and prosper (Pavlik, 1998, p. 186)

  • Newspapers are incorporating URLs in their daily content since mid-1990s

  • Internet has become a tool for journalists to gather news and information

Journalists and internet

Journalists and Internet

In 1998-1999


  • Yahoo!

  • Alta Vista

  • Excite

  • Netscape

  • HotBot

  • Infoseek

Communication technology uamg3053

Types of Websites

  • State government site

  • Federal government site

  • Newspapers site

    Strong Websites

  • Reputable Sources

  • Valid and accurate information

  • Searchable

  • Easy access to information

Communication technology uamg3053

Preferred web based technology

  • Email

  • File-transfer protocol

  • Bulletin Board less use

  • Audio Streaming less use

Factors to publish online version with interactivity

Factors to publish online version with interactivity

1.Competition website as extravagance

2.Community Pluralism desire media interaction

3.Ownership decision

Quality of new media content

Quality of New Media Content

Advantages of New Media Content

  • Rich multimedia presentation

  • Individualization of content

  • Fully interactive

  • Immersive forms of content

Communication technology uamg3053


  • referring the quality of online publication

  • Electronic products that are nothing more than their paper products

  • Directly converted the paper version into electronic version

  • Example: IF the printed version of the Star and is the same.

  • The online electronic version does not provide us with any additional information.

New media and dissemination

New Media and Dissemination

Rapid Dissemination Distribution technology

  • The speed of dissemination of information

  • One-to-many dissemination

  • From many to many dissemination

Heterogeneous audience

Heterogeneous Audience


consisting of dissimilar or diverse ingredients or constituents



  • Has long been understood as receivers

  • Traditionally refers to reader of, viewers of, listeners to one or other media channel

  • The term audience is diverse and constantly changing

    E.g. Readers of early 18th century novels and to subscribers to 2005 cable television services to the Internet (users)

Audiences are both

Audiences are both

1.Product of a social context

- Shared cultural interests, understandings, information needs

- E.g. Classical theaters, sports, romantic comedy, anti-war, republican and democrat.

2.Response to a particular pattern of media provision (arrangement)

- Television and Radio uses, Different lifestyle, availability, and everyday routines.

Audiences can be define by

Audiences can be define by

  • Place Local, regional or International

  • People Age, gender, political belief, income (demographic)

  • Medium/Channel - TV, Radio, Internet (organization and technology combined)

  • Content Genres, Styles,

  • Time Primetime, daytime, drive-time

History and development of audience

History and Development of Audience

Classical Time

  • Media audience started in public theatrical and musical performances Roman and Creek city

    - Physical gathering in a certain place

    - Spectator of public events

  • Had it own customs, rules, and expectations about time, place and content of performances; conditions for admission

Features of audience in classical time

Features of audience in classical time

  • Localized in place and time

  • Sit in an auditorium to hear or see what was going on and to respond directly

  • Smaller audience by modern standard

  • Active within itself and interactive within performers live performances

  • Have a potential collective life of its own, based on a common background and the shared experience of the moment

Emergence of mass audience

Emergence of Mass Audience

Printed Book

  • Started with the introduction of printed book

  • Allowed effective communication at a distance in space and time and also privacy in use

  • Dispersed reading public a set of individuals choosing the same texts

Printed book

Printed Book.

  • Reading public was localized in cities, social status, and language

  • Expansion of technology has made the printed material cheap and plentiful for diversified audiences

  • Changes in technology and society altered the nature of audiences, especially in respect of scale

  • Urbanization, rail transportation, technology in printing, increased literacytransformed printing production to a large-scale industries

Film and audience

Film and Audience

Invention of film restored the original of locatedness of reception pictures showing in town hall

  • Created the first mass audience large scale reception and identical message or performance

  • Millions of people can enjoy the same mediated emotional and learning experiences

Communication technology uamg3053

  • Audiences might not be able to interact with the film, but audiences could interact with each other

  • No live performance, accept for musical

  • The show was always and everywhere the same

Audience and broadcasting

Audience and Broadcasting

  • New kind of audience based on technology

  • Competition of audiences become a matter of competing equipment cable and satellite, video and audio recording, MP3 and CD

  • Was initially a distribution technology

  • Audience could be defined as consisting of those who possessed the reception equipment

Communication technology uamg3053

  • Simultaneity of impact was much greater and affected larger numbers

  • Uniformity of content

  • Privatization watching TV is a private affair

  • Earlier TV audiences are large, anonymous, addicted, and passive

  • TV and radio audiences are outside of the range of direct observation and record

Audience as

Audience as

Audience as a mass

  • Mass audience products of modern industrial urban society

    - Largeness of society, anonymous, rootlessness, detached individuals, lacks any organization, stable structure, rules, and no fixed location

Audience as1

Audience as

Audience as a group

2.Experience is personal, small scale, and integrated into social life

- People makes their media choices

Audience as a market

3.TV and radio audiences

- Region served by media, social-demographic, actual and potential market

- Focus on media consumption

Tutorial 9 questions

Tutorial 9 - Questions

1.What are four main changes that have affected the audience with the development of new media?

2.Discuss how the phrase the more you know, the more you see is true in your profession.

3.(a) Define audience.

(b) Can we refer to the Internet audience as heterogeneous? Why?

4What is the prediction of John Pavlik about the 3 stages of online journalism in the future?

5.What are disadvantages of digital photography from photojournalists perspective?



  • Jukes, S. (2002). Real-time responsibility: Journalisms challenges in an instantaneous age. Harvard International Review, 24, p. 14- 18.

  • Lester, P. M. (2003). Visual communication: Images with messages. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

  • Lowrey, W. (2003). What influences small newspapers to decide to publish online news?

    Newspaper Research Journal, 24, p. 83-90.

  • McQuail, D. (1997). Audience analysis. London: Sage.



  • Pavlik, J. V. (1998). New media technology, London: Allyn and Bacon.

  • Robinson, P. (2002). The CNN effect: The myth of news, foreign policy and intervention. London: Routledge.

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