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Worldviews in Counseling. Attitudes. Values. Assumptions. Make Decisions. Behave. Define events. Worldviews are…. One’s perspective on how the world works - one’s place in the world and in relationships. Worldviews. Worldview Defined (continued).

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Worldviews in Counseling

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Worldviews in counseling

Worldviews in Counseling

Worldviews are




Make Decisions


Define events

Worldviews are…

  • One’s perspective on how the world works - one’s place in the world and in relationships.


Worldview defined continued

Worldview Defined (continued)

  • Correlated with cultural upbringing and life experiences.

  • Experiences of oppression, racism (or other isms), societal barriers are incorporated into worldview.

  • Can talk about group level worldview.

    • Also about individual level as SES, gender, education, age, etc. influence worldview.

Worldviews in counseling1

Worldviews in Counseling

  • Both counselor and client have own worldviews.

  • Worldviews frame the definition of the counseling “problem” and also what solutions are considered.

  • Worldviews guide what counseling “looks like” - our theories come from certain worldviews.

Worldviews in counseling

  • When worldviews differ (with no awareness of that cultural difference), negative traits might be attributed to people holding differing worldviews.

  • Similarly, definitions of normality and mental health (or lack thereof) can be based on the counselors’ worldviews - often the counseling worldview is based on dominant group’s values.

Kluckhohn and strodtbeck value orientations model

Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck Value-Orientations Model

Locus of control responsibility

Locus of control/responsibility

  • Locus of control - reinforcements are contingent on my actions (internal) or what I do has no effect on what happens to me (external).

  • Locus of responsibility - where is the primary responsibility for what occurs in my life? Is it on me (internal) or are there sociocultural forces that structure my life (external-system)?

Quadrant model

Quadrant Model

Biracial or multiracial individuals

Biracial or Multiracial Individuals

Worldviews in counseling

  • Census 2000, 2.4% marked 2 or more races (6.8 million). Reporting difficulties and tradition of identifying with one parent suggest underreporting this number.

  • Not until 1967 that last state dropped laws against interracial marriages (anti-miscegenation laws). Thus, for many years, these children were illegal.

  • Currently, less attention/knowledge to biracial individuals.



  • Stereotype of marginalized tragic figure (early research focused on confusion, lower self-esteem).

  • Biracial children must choose to identify with 1 parent (racial group) - usually the parent of color in a White/other relationship - to be healthy.

  • Biracial people don’t want to discuss racial identity.

More accurate beliefs

More Accurate Beliefs

  • Research does not indicate that multiethnic children have more, or more serious mental health issues than general population.

  • While multiracial individuals may feel pressure to identify with only 1 part of ethnic heritage, healthy development involves an integration of cultural backgrounds into new identity.

  • Parents can help in developing this new identity by openly exploring family’s cultural background.

Worldviews in counseling

  • On average, multiracial kids develop awareness of race and racial differences earlier that monoracial children (ages 3-4).

  • Adolescence can be particularly difficult as peers become less tolerant then. Vacillation between identification with 1 parent and the other may occur in the process of integrating both. Desire to fit in.

    • Dating accentuates race issues

Kerwin et al qualitative study

Kerwin et al. qualitative study

  • Parents struggled with using or not using racially identifiable labels.

  • Parents were concerned about preparing children for anticipated discrimination.

  • Some felt their children would be uniquely prepared to deal with differences among people.

  • Location was important for finding racially diverse and open neighborhood.

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