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Properties of Matter. Properties of Matter. Physical properties - properties that can be observed without changing the chemical makeup of the substance - mass, volume, color, shape, size, conductivity, solubility, density boiling point, melting point, viscosity. Physical Changes.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Properties of Matter

Physical properties - properties that can be observed without changing the chemical makeup of the substance

- mass, volume, color, shape, size, conductivity, solubility, density boiling point, melting point, viscosity

slide3

Physical Changes

  • Physical change – a change that affects only the physical properties of matter
using physical properties and changes to separate
Using Physical Properties and Changes to Separate
  • Mixtures can be separated using physical properties and changes
  • Distillation – process for separating a mixture by evaporating a liquid and then condensing the vapor
physical properties conductivity
Physical Properties: Conductivity
  • Refers to the ability of a metal or alloy to allow heat or electricity to pass through easily.
  • Good conductors:
    • Gold & silver, aluminum, copper
  • Bad conductors:
    • Wood, glass & plastic, rubber
physical properties solubility
Physical Properties: Solubility
  • Refers to the amount of a solute (or a particle) that can be dissolved in a given solvent.
  • Solubility is affected by several factors.
slide7

Factors that Increase the Rate of Dissolving

1.) Stirring the solution (agitation)

- agitating the solution increases collisions between solute and solvent particles

slide8

2.) heating the solvent

- speeds up the solvent particles so there are more frequent collisions between solvent and solute

3.) smaller particle size

- increases surface area so there are more places the solvent can get to the solute & less bonds for solvent to break

physical properties density
Physical Properties: Density
  • Density is a ratio.
  • Refers to a specific material’s ratio of mass:volume, and can be calculated with the following equation:

mass

m

density

________

__

=

=

D

v

volume

physical properties viscosity
Physical Properties: Viscosity
  • A fluid’s tendency to resist flow.
  • High viscosity flows slowly, while low viscosity flows quickly.
physical properties melting point
Physical Properties: Melting Point
  • Defined as the temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy.
  • Particles are in an ordered arrangement (solid) and begin to slip out of this order (become a liquid).
  • *Can change/vary!*
physical properties boiling point
Physical Properties: Boiling Point
  • Defined as the temperature at which the pressure of the vapor in the liquid is equal to the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid.
  • Particles move from a liquid to a gas.
  • *Can be changed/varied!*
chemical properties and changes
Chemical Properties and Changes

Chemical Properties - properties that can only be observed by changing the chemical makeup of the substance

- combustibility

- reacts with an acid/base

- capacity to corrode/oxidize

slide14

Signs that a Chemical Change has occurred...

1.) Gas is given off

2.) Sudden formation of a solid (precipitate)

3.) Releasing or absorbing heat

4.) Release of light

5.) Sudden color change

chemical properties combustibility
Chemical Properties: Combustibility
  • Defined as a substance that is able to react with oxygen to produce heat and light.
  • Commonly includes hydrocarbons (wood, paper, fossil fuels).
  • Typical combustion reaction:
chemical properties corrosion oxidation
Chemical Properties: Corrosion/Oxidation
  • During corrosion, metals react with oxygen, gaining electrons.
  • The result are oxides, new chemicals which form from a combination with oxygen.
  • Example: rust.
  • Rust is an example

of oxidation, which is

simply the ability of a

chemical steal electrons

from another chemical.

law of conservation of mass
Law of Conservation of Mass
  • Law of Conservation of Mass – matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical change
    • Mass of the reactants = mass of the products
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