Properties of matter
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Properties of Matter. Properties of Matter. Physical properties - properties that can be observed without changing the chemical makeup of the substance - mass, volume, color, shape, size, conductivity, solubility, density boiling point, melting point, viscosity. Physical Changes.

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Properties of Matter

Physical properties - properties that can be observed without changing the chemical makeup of the substance

- mass, volume, color, shape, size, conductivity, solubility, density boiling point, melting point, viscosity

Physical Changes

  • Physical change – a change that affects only the physical properties of matter

Using physical properties and changes to separate
Using Physical Properties and Changes to Separate

  • Mixtures can be separated using physical properties and changes

  • Distillation – process for separating a mixture by evaporating a liquid and then condensing the vapor

Physical properties conductivity
Physical Properties: Conductivity

  • Refers to the ability of a metal or alloy to allow heat or electricity to pass through easily.

  • Good conductors:

    • Gold & silver, aluminum, copper

  • Bad conductors:

    • Wood, glass & plastic, rubber

Physical properties solubility
Physical Properties: Solubility

  • Refers to the amount of a solute (or a particle) that can be dissolved in a given solvent.

  • Solubility is affected by several factors.

Factors that Increase the Rate of Dissolving

1.) Stirring the solution (agitation)

- agitating the solution increases collisions between solute and solvent particles

2.) heating the solvent

- speeds up the solvent particles so there are more frequent collisions between solvent and solute

3.) smaller particle size

- increases surface area so there are more places the solvent can get to the solute & less bonds for solvent to break

Physical properties density
Physical Properties: Density

  • Density is a ratio.

  • Refers to a specific material’s ratio of mass:volume, and can be calculated with the following equation:











Physical properties viscosity
Physical Properties: Viscosity

  • A fluid’s tendency to resist flow.

  • High viscosity flows slowly, while low viscosity flows quickly.

Physical properties melting point
Physical Properties: Melting Point

  • Defined as the temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy.

  • Particles are in an ordered arrangement (solid) and begin to slip out of this order (become a liquid).

  • *Can change/vary!*

Physical properties boiling point
Physical Properties: Boiling Point

  • Defined as the temperature at which the pressure of the vapor in the liquid is equal to the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid.

  • Particles move from a liquid to a gas.

  • *Can be changed/varied!*

Chemical properties and changes
Chemical Properties and Changes

Chemical Properties - properties that can only be observed by changing the chemical makeup of the substance

- combustibility

- reacts with an acid/base

- capacity to corrode/oxidize

Signs that a Chemical Change has occurred...

1.) Gas is given off

2.) Sudden formation of a solid (precipitate)

3.) Releasing or absorbing heat

4.) Release of light

5.) Sudden color change

Chemical properties combustibility
Chemical Properties: Combustibility

  • Defined as a substance that is able to react with oxygen to produce heat and light.

  • Commonly includes hydrocarbons (wood, paper, fossil fuels).

  • Typical combustion reaction:

Chemical properties corrosion oxidation
Chemical Properties: Corrosion/Oxidation

  • During corrosion, metals react with oxygen, gaining electrons.

  • The result are oxides, new chemicals which form from a combination with oxygen.

  • Example: rust.

  • Rust is an example

    of oxidation, which is

    simply the ability of a

    chemical steal electrons

    from another chemical.

Law of conservation of mass
Law of Conservation of Mass

  • Law of Conservation of Mass – matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical change

    • Mass of the reactants = mass of the products