Properties of matter
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Properties of matter. General Properties of Matter. Matter is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter . What are properties?. Characteristics used to describe an object Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness video. General Properties of matter.

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General properties of matter
General Properties of Matter

  • Matter is anything that has mass and volume

  • Everything is made of matter


What are properties
What are properties?

  • Characteristics used to describe an object

  • Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness

  • video


General properties of matter1
General Properties of matter

  • Mass, weight, volume, and density

  • Properties are used to identify a substance


What is mass
What is mass?

  • Mass is the amount of matter in an object

  • Mass is constant

  • Mass is also the measure of inertia


What is inertia
What is inertia?

  • Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion

  • The more mass the greater the inertia


Questions
Questions

  • How is mass related to inertia?

  • Why are properties of an object important?


Question
Question

  • Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why?


Question1
Question

  • What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?


Question2
Question

  • Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt?


Question3
Question

  • What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?


Question4
Question

  • What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle?


Weight
Weight

  • The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object

  • Weight changes with gravity

  • The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)


Weight formula
Weight formula

  • 1 kg = 2.2 pounds

  • Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s2)

  • W= m x g

  • What is your mass?

  • What is your weight in Newtons?


What is gravity
What is gravity?

  • The force of attraction between objects is gravity

  • All objects exert a gravitational force on each other


Question5
Question

  • Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?


Gravitational pull
Gravitational pull

  • The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force


Question6
Question

  • Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive?


What affects gravity
What affects gravity?

  • The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases

  • gravity depends on mass and distance


Gravity
Gravity

  • The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh


Question7
Question

  • Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?


Question8
Question

  • The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon?


Questions1
Questions

  • What are three properties of matter related to mass?


Question9
Question

  • What is density and how is it calculated?


Density
Density

  • The density of water is 1.0 g/ml

  • Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water


Density1
Density

  • Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water


Ice

  • Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water

  • Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed


Astronomy fact
Astronomy fact!

  • The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!


Calculations
Calculations

  • If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?


Calculation
Calculation

  • If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm3, what is the density of aluminum?


Calculation1
Calculation

  • If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm3, what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm3?


What is specific gravity
What is specific gravity?

  • A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity


Questions2
Questions

  • How is density different from specific gravity?


What is a physical property
What is a physical property?

  • Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance


Phases of matter video
Phases of matter (video)

  • Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma

  • solids have a definite shape and volume


Solid particle arrangement
Solid particle arrangement

  • Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate

  • Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous


Types of solids
Types of solids

  • Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar)

  • Amorphous solids can lose their shape


Examples of amorphous solids
Examples of amorphous solids

  • Tar, candle wax, glass

  • Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature)


Liquid particle arrangement
Liquid particle arrangement

  • Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move


Question10
Question

  • Describe the shape of a liquid.


Describe a liquid
Describe a liquid

  • Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume


Question11
Question

  • What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four-liter container?


Properties of liquids
Properties of liquids

  • Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container

  • Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow


What is viscosity
What is viscosity?

  • The resistance of a liquid to flow

  • The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily

  • Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity


Behavior of liquids
Behavior of liquids

  • Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles

  • Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles


Surface tension video
Surface tension (video)

  • Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion


Question12
Question

  • Describe the viscosity of a liquid.

  • Describe a liquid’s shape.


Questions3
Questions

  • How is adhesion different from cohesion?

  • Explain surface tension.


Properties of gases
Properties of gases

  • Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video)

  • They fill all the available space in a container


Kinetic molecular theory of matter
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

  • Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion


Question13
Question

  • How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?


Gas laws
Gas laws

  • Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume


Charles law
Charles Law

  • Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)


Charles law1
Charles’ Law

  • As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases

  • Heating air causes it to expand


Question14
Question

  • How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?


Pressure
Pressure

  • The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area


Boyle s law
Boyle’s Law

  • Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)


Boyle s law1
Boyle’s law

  • If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law)

  • The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure


Plasma
Plasma

  • Plasma (phase)

  • most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)


Question15
Question

  • What are the four phases of matter?

  • Describe the plasma phase of matter.


Phase changes video
Phase changes (video)

  • Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation


What is a physical change
What is a physical change?

  • Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties

  • Type of matter remains the same


Questions4
Questions

  • Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).


Physical changes
Physical changes

  • Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change


Melting video
Melting video

  • Phase change from a solid to a liquid


Melting point
Melting point

  • Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid

  • Physical property


Questions5
Questions

  • How is melting different from freezing?


Phase changes video1
Phase changes (video)

  • Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant

  • Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes


Vaporization
Vaporization

  • Phase change from a liquid to a gas


Boiling point video
Boiling point (video)

  • The temperature in which a liquid boils

  • Point at which a liquid changes to a gas


Freezing video
Freezing (video)

  • Phase change of a liquid to a solid

  • The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point


Condensation
Condensation

  • Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid

  • Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas


Question16
Question

  • Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.


Sublimation examples
Sublimation examples

  • Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation


Chemical properties
Chemical properties

  • Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties

  • Ex: flammability


Chemical changes
Chemical changes

  • The change of a substance into a new and different substance

  • Also known as a chemical reaction

  • video


Questions6
Questions

  • What is another name for a chemical change?

  • Describe sublimation.

  • How is a chemical change different from a physical change?


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