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Properties of matter - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Properties of matter. General Properties of Matter. Matter is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter . What are properties?. Characteristics used to describe an object Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness video. General Properties of matter.

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Properties of matter

• Matter is anything that has mass and volume

• Everything is made of matter

• Characteristics used to describe an object

• Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness

• video

• Mass, weight, volume, and density

• Properties are used to identify a substance

• Mass is the amount of matter in an object

• Mass is constant

• Mass is also the measure of inertia

• Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion

• The more mass the greater the inertia

• How is mass related to inertia?

• Why are properties of an object important?

• Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why?

• What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?

• Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt?

• What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?

• What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle?

• The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object

• Weight changes with gravity

• The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)

• 1 kg = 2.2 pounds

• Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s2)

• W= m x g

• What is your weight in Newtons?

• The force of attraction between objects is gravity

• All objects exert a gravitational force on each other

• Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?

• The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force

• Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive?

• The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases

• gravity depends on mass and distance

• The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh

• Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?

• The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon?

• What are three properties of matter related to mass?

• What is density and how is it calculated?

• The density of water is 1.0 g/ml

• Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water

• Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water

• Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water

• Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed

• The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!

• If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?

• If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm3, what is the density of aluminum?

• If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm3, what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm3?

• A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity

• How is density different from specific gravity?

• Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance

Phases of matter (video)

• Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma

• solids have a definite shape and volume

• Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate

• Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous

• Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar)

• Amorphous solids can lose their shape

• Tar, candle wax, glass

• Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature)

• Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move

• Describe the shape of a liquid.

• Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume

• What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four-liter container?

• Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container

• Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow

• The resistance of a liquid to flow

• The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily

• Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity

• Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles

• Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles

Surface tension (video)

• Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion

• Describe the viscosity of a liquid.

• Describe a liquid’s shape.

• How is adhesion different from cohesion?

• Explain surface tension.

• Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video)

• They fill all the available space in a container

• Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion

• How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?

• Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume

• Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)

• As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases

• Heating air causes it to expand

• How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?

• The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area

• Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)

• If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law)

• The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure

• Plasma (phase)

• most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)

• What are the four phases of matter?

• Describe the plasma phase of matter.

Phase changes (video)

• Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation

• Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties

• Type of matter remains the same

• Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).

• Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change

Melting video

• Phase change from a solid to a liquid

• Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid

• Physical property

• How is melting different from freezing?

Phase changes (video)

• Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant

• Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes

• Phase change from a liquid to a gas

Boiling point (video)

• The temperature in which a liquid boils

• Point at which a liquid changes to a gas

Freezing (video)

• Phase change of a liquid to a solid

• The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point

• Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid

• Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas

• Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.

• Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation

• Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties

• Ex: flammability

• The change of a substance into a new and different substance

• Also known as a chemical reaction

• video

• What is another name for a chemical change?

• Describe sublimation.

• How is a chemical change different from a physical change?