Properties of matter

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# Properties of matter - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Properties of matter. General Properties of Matter. Matter is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter . What are properties?. Characteristics used to describe an object Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness video. General Properties of matter.

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### Properties of matter

General Properties of Matter
• Matter is anything that has mass and volume
• Everything is made of matter
What are properties?
• Characteristics used to describe an object
• Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness
• video
General Properties of matter
• Mass, weight, volume, and density
• Properties are used to identify a substance
What is mass?
• Mass is the amount of matter in an object
• Mass is constant
• Mass is also the measure of inertia
What is inertia?
• Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion
• The more mass the greater the inertia
Questions
• How is mass related to inertia?
• Why are properties of an object important?
Question
• Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why?
Question
• What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly?
Question
• Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt?
Question
• What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place?
Question
• What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle?
Weight
• The measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object
• Weight changes with gravity
• The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N)
Weight formula
• 1 kg = 2.2 pounds
• Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s2)
• W= m x g
• What is your weight in Newtons?
What is gravity?
• The force of attraction between objects is gravity
• All objects exert a gravitational force on each other
Question
• Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth?
Gravitational pull
• The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force
Question
• Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive?
What affects gravity?
• The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases
• gravity depends on mass and distance
Gravity
• The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh
Question
• Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest?
Question
• The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon?
Questions
• What are three properties of matter related to mass?
Question
• What is density and how is it calculated?
Density
• The density of water is 1.0 g/ml
• Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water
Density
• Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water
Ice
• Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water
• Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed
Astronomy fact!
• The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float!
Calculations
• If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold?
Calculation
• If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm3, what is the density of aluminum?
Calculation
• If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm3, what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm3?
What is specific gravity?
• A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity
Questions
• How is density different from specific gravity?
What is a physical property?
• Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
Phases of matter (video)
• Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
• solids have a definite shape and volume
Solid particle arrangement
• Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate
• Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous
Types of solids
• Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar)
• Amorphous solids can lose their shape
Examples of amorphous solids
• Tar, candle wax, glass
• Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature)
Liquid particle arrangement
• Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move
Question
• Describe the shape of a liquid.
Describe a liquid
• Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume
Question
• What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four-liter container?
Properties of liquids
• Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container
• Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow
What is viscosity?
• The resistance of a liquid to flow
• The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily
• Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity
Behavior of liquids
• Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles
• Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles
Surface tension (video)
• Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion
Question
• Describe the viscosity of a liquid.
• Describe a liquid’s shape.
Questions
• How is adhesion different from cohesion?
• Explain surface tension.
Properties of gases
• Gases do not have a definite shape or volume (video)
• They fill all the available space in a container
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
• Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion
Question
• How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another?
Gas laws
• Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume
Charles Law
• Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure)
Charles’ Law
• As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases
• Heating air causes it to expand
Question
• How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space?
Pressure
• The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area
Boyle’s Law
• Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature)
Boyle’s law
• If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law)
• The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure
Plasma
• Plasma (phase)
• most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars)
Question
• What are the four phases of matter?
• Describe the plasma phase of matter.
Phase changes (video)
• Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation
What is a physical change?
• Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties
• Type of matter remains the same
Questions
• Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation).
Physical changes
• Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change
Melting video
• Phase change from a solid to a liquid
Melting point
• Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid
• Physical property
Questions
• How is melting different from freezing?
Phase changes (video)
• Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant
• Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes
Vaporization
• Phase change from a liquid to a gas
Boiling point (video)
• The temperature in which a liquid boils
• Point at which a liquid changes to a gas
Freezing (video)
• Phase change of a liquid to a solid
• The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point
Condensation
• Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid
• Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas
Question
• Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization.
Sublimation examples
• Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation
Chemical properties
• Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties
• Ex: flammability
Chemical changes
• The change of a substance into a new and different substance
• Also known as a chemical reaction
• video
Questions
• What is another name for a chemical change?
• Describe sublimation.
• How is a chemical change different from a physical change?