Consumer buying behavior
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Consumer Buying Behavior. What makes people consumers?. Topics. Buying Behavior Characteristics Affecting Behavior Buying Decisions Buying Process New Product Adoption. Consumers. Consumer Market All individuals and households who buy for personal use Consumer buying behavior

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Consumer Buying Behavior

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Consumer buying behavior

Consumer Buying Behavior

What makes people consumers?


Topics

Topics

  • Buying Behavior

  • Characteristics Affecting Behavior

  • Buying Decisions

  • Buying Process

  • New Product Adoption


Consumers

Consumers

  • Consumer Market

    • All individuals and households who buy for personal use

  • Consumer buying behavior

    • Reasons and logic behind purchasing decisions

  • U.S. market > 300 million

  • Worldwide > 6 billion

    • Expected to be over 8 billion by 2025


Consumers1

Consumers

  • How do consumers respond to marketing attempts?

  • Influences

    • Marketing Mix: price, place, product, promotion

  • Consumer

    • Characteristics and decision process

  • Responses

    • Product, brand, dealer choice, purchase timing


Behavior characteristics

Behavior Characteristics

  • Cultural

    • Broadest and deepest influence

  • Includes

    • Culture

    • Subculture

    • Social class


Culture

Culture

  • Most basic cause of wants and needs

  • Cultural behavior is learned, not inherited

  • Different cultures have different values

    • Recall from earlier sections

  • Marketers need to be aware of cultural shifts in order to target products correctly


Subculture

Subculture

  • Smaller groups within a culture that share common interests and traits

    • Typically identifiable through demographics

  • 4 major divisions

    • Hispanics

    • African Americans

    • Asian Americans

    • 50 plus


Social class

Social Class

  • Permanent divisions in the subculture

  • Not just by income, but also occupation, education, type of wealth

  • Some countries have fixed classes, i.e. India

  • 7 flexible distinction in U.S.


Social class1

Social Class

  • Upper Uppers - > 1%

  • Lower Uppers – 1%

  • Upper Middle – 15%

  • Middle Class – 30%

  • Working Class – 38%

  • Upper Lower – 13%

    “Working poor”

  • Lower Lower – 12%


Social factors

Social Factors

  • Groups

    • Membership groups – direct influence

    • Reference groups – points of comparison

      • Aspirational groups – a group you want to belong to, sports teams, bands, etc.

    • Opinion leaders – those who influence based on status, skills or personality


Social factors1

Social Factors

  • Family

    • Most important buying organization

    • Continuing changes in family require constant marketing adaptation

  • Role and Status

    • Activities people are expected to perform based on others

    • General esteem given by society


Personal factors

Personal Factors

  • Age and Life Cycle


Personal factors1

Personal Factors

  • Occupation

    • Mechanics buy differently than lawyers

  • Economic situation

    • Disposable vs. discretionary income

  • Lifestyle

    • Pattern of living, dictated by psychographics


Lifestyles

Lifestyles

  • AIO dimensions

    • Activities, Interests, and Opinions

  • VALS – Values and Lifestyles

  • Principle Oriented

  • Status Oriented

  • Action Oriented


Psychological factors

Psychological Factors

  • Motivation

  • Perception

    • Selective Attention

    • Selective Distortion

    • Selective Retention


Subliminal messages

Subliminal Messages

Cook for President

  • A 1957 study showed that flashing ads every 5 seconds for 1/300th of a second increased buying rates

  • Later proved to be false information

  • Does not work


Buying decisions

Buying Decisions


Buying decisions1

Buying Decisions

  • Complex Buying

    • Product is expensive, risky, purchased infrequently, great difference in brands

    • Computers, Cars

  • Dissonance Reducing

    • Expensive, infrequent, little difference between brands

    • Carpeting


Buying decisions2

Buying Decisions

  • Habitual Buying

    • Low cost, little difference in brands

    • Salt, butter, toothpaste

  • Variety Seeking

    • Low cost, high perceived difference

    • Cookies, candy, cereal


Buying process

Buying Process

  • Need Recognition

    • Realizes want or need

  • Information Search

    • Looks for information

    • Passively – heightened awareness

    • Actively – internet, in store, word-of-mouth, experiential


Buying process1

Buying Process

  • Evaluate Alternatives

    • Now informed, considers different brands

  • Purchase

    • Intention – decides on brand

    • Choice – actual purchase of item

      • Many factors can change the intention

  • Post purchase

    • Satisfied customer tells 3 -4 people

    • Dissatisfied tells at least 10


New product adoption

New Product Adoption

  • Awareness – knows of product

  • Interest – seeks information

  • Evaluation – considers purchase

  • Trial – experiences on small scale

  • Adoption – accepts or rejects new product


Adoption curve

Adoption Curve


Adoption curve1

Innovators

tries at great cost

Early Adopters

opinion leaders

Early Majority

pick up on hot trend

Late Majority

skeptics

Laggards

only adopt when it become a tradition

Adoption Curve


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