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Consumer Behavior. Professor Lawrence Feick University of Pittsburgh. Outline. Consumer decision process Interpersonal influences on consumer behavior Personal influences on consumer behavior Organizational buying. Consumer decision process. Personal Influences on Buyer Behavior.

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Consumer behavior l.jpg

Consumer Behavior

Professor Lawrence Feick

University of Pittsburgh


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Outline

  • Consumer decision process

  • Interpersonal influences on consumer behavior

  • Personal influences on consumer behavior

  • Organizational buying


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Consumer decision process

Personal Influences on Buyer Behavior

Personal Influences on Buyer Behavior

Purchase

decision &

action

Evaluation of

alternatives

Problem

recognition

Information

search

Post

purchase

Interpersonal Influences on Buyer Behavior


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Problem recognition

  • Triggered by

    • external inputs: car breaks down, pass a bakery, see an ad for a computer

    • internal inputs: hunger, thirst, etc..


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Information search

  • Internal information sources: memory for brands, attributes, importance weights

  • External information sources:

    • company sponsored sources: ads, brochures, direct mail, salesperson, etc.

    • experiential sources: in-store trial

    • independent sources: evaluation and enthusiast magazines

    • personal sources: Uncle Bob


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Evaluation of alternatives

  • Needed to evaluate:

    • set of brands and attributes

    • brand performance on attributes

    • attribute importances

    • process for combining brand and attribute information



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Car choice: often a staged process

  • Stage 1: Narrow the set of all alternatives (in US, hundreds of brands) to a smaller consideration (also called evoked) set

    • often done on basis of meeting the threshold on one or a few attributes (noncompensatory)

  • Stage 2: Choose the best alternative from the consideration set

    • often done comparing the “weighted average scores” across cars (linear-compensatory)


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Example: stage 1

  • Individual narrows choice to (forms consideration set that includes) small sedans based on objectives, price range, operating costs, etc


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Example: stage 2

  • Choosing a best alternative from the consideration set

  • Formation of a brand by attribute matrix






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Purchase decision (choice)

  • Outcome of evaluation:

    • preferred brand or brands


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Question: What do you do

  • ...if you are Hyundai and a segment that you want to attract thinks like Mary?


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Purchase action

  • Impact of budget constraints

  • Impact of availability of product

  • Impact of immediacy of need

  • Impact of point of purchase:

    • presentation on shelf, displays, packaging, salesperson, price specials


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Postpurchase

  • Does the product meet expectations?

  • Does the product perform satisfactorily?

  • Dissatisfaction if either is no


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Limited Problem Solving

Cola

Routinized Response Behavior

Some thoughts on consumer thinking: how much thought?

Extended Problem Solving


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Some thoughts on consumer thinking: where decisions occur

  • Planned decisions (the brand-level decision is made prior to store visit)

    • specifically planned purchases

  • In-store decisions

    • generally planned purchases

    • substituted purchases

    • unplanned (impulse) purchases



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Influences on the decision making process

  • Personal influence

  • Interpersonal influence


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Personal influences

  • Needs and Maslow’s hierarchy

  • Perception

  • Attitudes

  • Learning

  • Self concept


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A focus on…needs

  • Needs: an imbalance between desired and actual states

  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs


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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Self

Actualization

Esteem

Social/belongingness

Safety

Physiological needs


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Marketing implications of Maslow

  • For a brand to be considered it must satisfy some need

  • Hierarchical: lower needs met before upper needs

  • Countries, cultures, segments can differ in focus on needs


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Marketing implications of Maslow’s hierarchy(text: Table 8.1)

PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

Products

Vitamins, herbal supplements, medicines, low-fat foods, exercise equipment, fitness clubs

Marketing approaches

Quaker Oatmeal--”Oh, what those oats can do!”

Boost nutritional drink--”Your body will thank you.”

Kaiser-Permanente--”More people turn to us for good health.”

Ginkoba ginseng--”The thinking person’s supplement.”

Advil--”Advanced medicine for pain.”


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SAFETY NEEDS

Products

Car accessories, burglar alarm systems, retirement investments, insurance, smoke and carbon monoxide detectors

Marketing approaches

Allstate Insurance--”You’re in good hands with Allstate.”

Ford Motor Company--”Only your mother is more obsessed with your safety.”

Lysol Basin Tub & Tile Cleaner--”This is no place for germs.”

Merrill Lynch--”A tradition of trust.”


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BELONGINGNESS NEEDS

Products

Beauty aids, entertainment, clothing

Marketing approaches

Carnival Cruise Lines--”The most popular cruise line in the world.”

Sears Mainframe Junior Dept.--”Got to have the clothes.”

Lady Foot Locker--”One store. Every woman.”


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ESTEEM NEEDS

Products

Clothing, cars, jewelry, liquors, hobbies, beauty spa services

Marketing approaches

Jeep--”There’s only one.”

Movado Museum Watch--”The making of a legendary classic.”

Bombay Sapphire Dry Gin--”Pour something priceless.”

BMW--”The ultimate driving machine.”


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SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS

Products

Education, cultural events, sports, hobbies

Marketing approaches

Nike--”If you let me play, I will like myself more.”

Outward Bound Schools--”The adventure lasts a lifetime.”

Danskin--”Not just for dancing.”


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Interpersonal influence

  • Culture

  • Reference groups

  • Opinion leaders

  • Family


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Reference groups

  • Groups whose values affect individuals’ behavior

    • Membership

    • Aspirational

    • Disassociative

  • Examples? Implications?


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Opinion leaders

  • Individuals who:

    • know about a product category

    • learn about new products earlier

    • provide information and influence decisions

  • Examples? Implications?


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Family

  • Key influence

  • Family lifecycle

    • incorporates age, marital status, presence of children

  • Key trends

    • increase in sharing of decision rights

    • changes in family structure

    • influence of children


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Family life cycle

Young

single

Full Nest

Empty Nest

Solitary Survivor

Newly

Married


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Summary: what do we know?

  • Purchase decision process

  • Influences on the process

    • personal influences

    • interpersonal influences


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