b-vitamins

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2. Thiamin (also known as B1). FunctionsCoenzyme in energy metabolismHelps synthesize neurotransmittersPart of the coenzyme TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate)Food sourcesWhole and enriched grainsPork, legumes, seeds, nuts, liverDeficiencyBeriberi. 3. The coenzyme-enzymepartnership. 4. 5. 6. Thiamin RecommendationsRDA: men: 1.2 mg/day; women: 1.1 mg/dayDeficiencymalnutrition; alcoholism; BERIBERI: damage to nervous system, heart, muscles; weakness;

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1. 1 B-Vitamins Do not provide the body with fuel for energy Help the body to use fuel Many form part of the coenzymes coenzyme: small organic molecule that associates closely with certain enzymes thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, panthothenic acid, biotin Some play roles in metabolism B6 assists enzymes that metabolize a.a. folate, B12 help RBC & GI cells multiply

2. 2 Thiamin (also known as B1) Functions Coenzyme in energy metabolism Helps synthesize neurotransmitters Part of the coenzyme TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate) Food sources Whole and enriched grains Pork, legumes, seeds, nuts, liver Deficiency Beriberi

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6. 6 Thiamin Recommendations RDA: men: 1.2 mg/day; women: 1.1 mg/day Deficiency malnutrition; alcoholism; BERIBERI: damage to nervous system, heart, muscles; weakness; “I can’t, I can’t” Food Sources highly refined foods are low in thiamin 3 oz. Pork chop (.93 mg), 3 oz ham (.6 mg), soy milk, acorn squash, corn flakes, green peas;

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8. 8 Riboflavin (also known as Vitamin B2) Functions Coenzyme in energy metabolism FMN: flavin mononucleotide FAD: flavin adenine dinucleotide Supports antioxidants Food sources Milk and dairy products Whole and enriched grains Deficiency ariboflavinosis

9. 9 Riboflavin Recommendations RDA: men: 1.3 mg/day; women: 1.1 mg/day Requirements increase with higher energy needs Deficiency Glossitis; stomatitis; cheilosis; seborrheic dermatitis; anemia; usually along with other nutrient deficiencies Food Sources 1 c. milk (.4 mg); 1 c. yogurt (.5 mg); 3 oz liver (>1.7 mg); enriched or whole grains

10. 10 Niacin Nicotinic acid; nicotinamide; vitamin B3 Functions Coenzyme in energy metabolism NAD= nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADP= “ “ “ phosphate Supports fatty acid synthesis Recommendations: RDA: 16 mg NE/day men and 14 mg NE/day women; 1 NE=1 mg n or 60 mg t Food sources Whole and enriched grains Meat, poultry, fish, nuts, and peanuts

11. 11 Niacin Deficiency Pellagra; symptoms of diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death Toxicity Nicotinic acid in doses 3-4 x RDA can cause “Niacin flush;” dilates capillaries and causes a tingling sensation; can be used to lower cholesterol; Food Sources 3 oz chicken breast (16.5 mg); 3 oz tuna (15 mg); liver, ham, sirloin steak, ground beef, spinach, mushrooms

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15. 15 Functions Coenzyme in protein and amino acidmetabolism; PLP: pyridoxal phosphate Supports immune system Food sources Meat, fish, poultry, liver Potatoes, bananas, watermelon, sunflower seeds Deficiency Microcytic hypochromic anemia Toxicity Can cause permanent nerve damage in high doses

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17. 17 Vitamin B-6 = Pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine Make non-essential a.a. Conversion of tryptophan to niacin to serotonin Synthesis on heme, nucleic acids, lecithin Stored in muscle tissue Acetaldehyde dislodges PLP Vitamin B-6 Recommendations RDA: 1.3 mg/day adults; Upper limit: 100 mg/day

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