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Reconfiguration Mechanism Design Mark Yim Associate Professor and Gabel Family Associate Professor Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania There are two fundamental electro-mechanical components to self-reconfiguring robot systems

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reconfiguration mechanism design

Reconfiguration Mechanism Design

Mark Yim

Associate Professor and

Gabel Family Associate Professor

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics,

University of Pennsylvania

slide2
There are two fundamental electro-mechanical components to self-reconfiguring robot systems
    • An attaching/detaching mechanism
    • Some form of motion between reconfigurations.
  • Focus on hardware, however, choices in hardware effect software design and vice versa.
costs of micro scale device pessimistic view
Costs of micro-scale device(pessimistic view)
  • Module: 1mm x 1mm x 1mm MEMS (silicon)
  • Silicon cost ~ $1/sq inch
    • 2003 Revenue $5.7billion / 4.78 billion sq inch silicon
    • $200 / 12” diam, $30 /8“ diam wafers
    • 100um-2000um thick (choose 1mm)
  • Assume processing costs ~$9/sq inch
  • Modules cost 1.6¢
  • Synthesize human shape
  • Mark weighs 65 Kg -> 65,000 cm3
    • Assume density of water (1kg = 1000 cm3 )
  • 65,000,000 modules
    • 1000 modules per cm3
  • Cost: $1,007,502.025
costs of micro scale device optimistic view
Costs of micro-scale device(optimistic view)
  • In mature systems, cost goes by the pound.
    • E.g. Xerox machines
    • Optimization in space/volume
  • The process cost can be reduced. Ultimately to near the cost of silicon (factor of 10 savings)
  • Fill factor of modules does not need to be 100% (factor of 10 savings)
  • Find a smaller person to synthesize (factor of 2 savings)
  • Cost $5,037
outline
Outline
  • Review of Motion mechanisms
    • Chain style reconfiguration
    • Lattice style reconfiguration
  • Review of Latching mechanisms
  • Discussion
proteo never built

Proteo

Proteo (never built)

Rhombic Face

(Edge length = 5 cm)

slide9
I-Cube, Cem Unsal @ CMU

Metamorphic, Chirikjian @ Hopkins

slide12
Molecube, Lipson @ cornell

ATRON, Ostergaard, et. al @ U. S. Denmark

slide13

Inoue, Pnumatic

Riken, Vertical

stochastic graph grammars
Stochastic/Graph Grammars
  • No main actuation (external)
    • Klavins
    • Lipson
  • Latching
    • Magnets
    • Pressure differential in oil
slide16
Polypod

UPenn superbot

slide17
Conro, Shen/will @ ISI

Mtran, Murata et al

lattice vs chain
1 DOF motion docking

Local self-collision detection

Higher stiffness dock

No singularities,

No mechanical advantage

Discrete motions

GeneralManipulation difficult

Unstructured environments difficult

6 DOF motion docking

Global self-collision detection

Lower stiffness dock

Singularities

Complicates control

Arbitrary motions

Lattice vs Chain

Lattice is easier for self-reconfiguration

Chain is easier for locomotion/manipulation

main drives
Main drives:
  • Geared DC motors (most popular)
  • Magnetic
  • Pneumatic
  • None

Not shown yet:

  • Combustive: easier if modules are large
  • Thermal (nuclear?): perhaps in space
  • Mechanochemical: does this exist?
  • Electrostatic: ok if small? High voltages
  • Molecular motors: if very tiny
latching mechanisms
Latching mechanisms
  • Magnetic – issue: strength
  • Mechanical – issue: actuator (size (strength/speed))
  • Pneumatic – issue: valves, supply
  • Hydraulic – issue: valves, supply

Not shown yet:

  • Electrostatic: ok if small? High voltages
  • Dry Adhesive: attach/detach motion?
slide22

Stolen from:

Esbed Ostergaard

Thesis

U. Southern Denmark

questions
Questions
  • What are the important parameters for the motion part? What are the tradeoffs?
    • DOF?
    • Shape?
    • #of attachments
    • Workspace?
  • What are the important parameters for attaching/detaching mechanisms?
what on earth are we going to do with these robots
What on earth are we going to do with these robots?
  • NASA program
    • It’s going to be more robust to send specialized machine per task
    • Multifunction cost savings vs capability
    • Space station repair
    • Mars exploration
    • Moon station (selfreplication)
  • Construction
    • Locomotion with manipulation
    • E.g. mine sensor support w/shoring
    • Building construction
    • Architecture
  • Exploration
    • Search and rescue
    • Undersea mining
    • Planetary mining
  • Shape only
    • Structures
    • Telepario
    • Shady robots
    • Programmable antennae
  • Research contribution for itself
  • On microscale
    • Self assembling chips (self-walking chips?)
    • Mechanical RSA (tiles form shapes to open locks)
    • Mechanical FPGA
slide26
Shape vs function
    • 3 people do shape only
  • Fundamental assumptions(?)
  • Self
    • Organizing
    • Reconfiguring
    • Repairing
    • Funding 
  • Communities to relate to?
    • Complexity systems community
    • Nanoscience community (foundations of nanoscience)
  • Availability of low cost reliable hardware helps to enable robotics research
    • Common platform, (e.g. mote like)
  • Sources of funding?
    • DARPA, NSF, Europe, (Brad has money)
    • Japan Aist/TiTech last
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