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Nutrition & Exercise Performance R.Quintana PhD -Director of Sac State Human Performance Research Laboratory & SHAPE -Advisor/Coach of Elite Runners -Former Competitive Runner Elite Athlete Focused Goal Oriented Optimal Training (Coaching/Atmosphere) Consistency (10 years) Well Fed

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Nutrition exercise performance l.jpg

Nutrition & Exercise Performance

R.Quintana PhD

-Director of Sac State Human Performance Research Laboratory & SHAPE

-Advisor/Coach of Elite Runners

-Former Competitive Runner


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Elite Athlete

  • Focused

  • Goal Oriented

  • Optimal Training (Coaching/Atmosphere)

  • Consistency (10 years)

  • Well Fed

  • Happy


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Basics of Nutrition

  • Energy

  • Essential Nutrients

    • Carbohydrates

    • Lipids

    • Protein

    • Minerals

    • vitamins


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Energy Levels and Metabolism

  • Low Calories

    • Doubles recovery to 96-120 hrs

    • Increased catabolic hormones (tear down) and disruption of normal hormonal function

  • Optimal

    • Recovery within 24-48 hrs

    • A balance of catabolic & anabolic hormones

  • Positive calories

    • Faster recovery

    • Optimal for building protein (muscle) & connective tissue

    • Anabolic Hormone Profile


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CHO and Protein

  • CHO

    • Roughly 60-65% of calories

    • 6 servings per day in 5 meals (5-10 gms/kg of BW)

      • This range is for:

      • Daily energy needs of 1667 kcal/day (60% CHO intake ~ roughly 5 gms/Kg of BW)

      • Tapering+CHO loading strategy (10 gms/kg of BW)

    • Complex 100% whole grains, Fruits, Vegetables

  • Protein

    • Roughly 20% of total calories

    • 1.2 to 1.6 gms/kg of BW in small quantities spread out out over 3-5 meals

    • Vegetarian and Animal

  • Lipid

    • Remaining Calories

    • Unsaturated FFA (Olive Oil - Virgin)

    • Essential for neural and anti-inflammatory


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Timing of Meals

  • 5 meals over the course of the day!

  • Make sure to get 5-7 servings of complex grains, fruits and vegetables with small amount of protein and lipid

  • Preworkout/Prerace Meal (3 hours prior)

    • Complex 100% whole grains with water/nonfat milk/nonfat soy (200-400 calories)

    • Minimize protein and lipid intake

  • PostRace Meal (within 1 of workout/race)

    • 20 grams of protein

    • 200 calories of simple/complex CHO

    • Speeds adaptation and recovery

    • Peanut butter & jelly sandwich with nonfat milk


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Warning Signs of Inadequate Energy Intake

  • Signs of overtraining!

  • Menstrual cycle irregularity

  • Loss of menstrual cycle

  • Loss of skeletal muscle

  • Increased perception of effort

  • Slow recovery and adaptation

  • Poor race performance

  • Depression

  • Increase injury

  • Low iron stores


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Bone and Connective Tissue

  • Optimal Caloric Balance

    • Hormonal profile provides for bone/ligament growth and repair

  • Fruits and Vegetables provide a ideal pH environment for the body

    • Avoid sodas, caffeinated drinks and overconsumption of protein (acidity release minerals from bone)

    • Well balanced diet that contains nonfat milk or soy fortified with calcium and adequate quality protein

  • 1,000 mg to 1500mg with Vitamin D3 is recommended

  • Sunlight - Sun-tanning of 15-30 min per day without sunblock


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Warning signs of Bone & Connective Tissue Issues

  • Inadequate intake of calories

  • Unbalanced diet

  • Inadequate intake of fruits/vegetables/calcium/VitaminD3

  • Loss of menstrual cycle

  • Stress reactions/fractures

  • Ligament - tendonitis issues

  • Knee - Hip injuries


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O2 transport and Mitochondrial Function

  • Iron essential for O2 transport and mitochondrial function!

  • A drop in Hg from 14 to 13 mg/dL = 3% decrease in O2 transport / utilization

  • An 18:00 5km runner would be slowed by 32 seconds

  • How to maintain O2 transport?

  • Adequate iron intake, well balance diet and maintaining caloric balance!


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Warning Signs of Inadequate Fe Stores

  • Sluggishness

  • Fatigue

  • Non-adaptation to training (going backwards)

  • Increase in perception of effort

  • Reduced race performance


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How Much Iron to Intake?

  • Well balance diet with lean sources of “red meat intake”

    • Heme-iron much more absorbable by body

  • 1 mg of elemental Fe per kg of body weight to maintain levels of ferritin above 30ng/dL (Martin - USATF Recommendation)

  • Liquid Iron with orange/apple juice (vitamin C)

    • 1 tsp = 45 mg of Fe for a 45 kg female runner

  • Too much Fe - poses problems so don’t take too much!


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Testing for Anemia & Low Iron Stores

  • Female Hg levels should be between 12-14 gm/DL

  • Levels below this indicate anemia - Iron deficiency

  • Serum Ferritin levels should be above 50 ng/dL (Martin - USATF Recommendation)

    • Levels between 30-50 ng/dL suboptimal

    • Levels between 20-30 ng/dL iron depletion

    • Levels below 20 ng/dL inadequate bone marrow iron


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Optimal Nutrition & Training

  • Optimal nutrition will enhance your training by allowing you to:

  • Progress and adapt to training

  • Improve consistency

  • Lower your injury rate!

  • Keep you happy

  • Allow you to achieve your GOALS


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Recommended Reading & Websites

  • “Nutrition Periodization for Endurance Athletes: Taking Traditional Sports Nutrition to the Next level” Author: Bob Seebohar

  • Nutrition Websites

    • http://www.nat.uiuc.edu/mainnat.html

    • http://www.thedailyplate.com

    • http://www.mypyramid.gov


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For Further Information

  • Roberto Quintana, PhD

    Director S.H.A.P.E., Human Performance Research, & I.E. Faria Exercise Physiology Research Laboratories

    CSUS 6000 J Street

    Sacramento, CA 95819-6073

    Phone (916)278-4495

    Fax (916)278-7664

    Email: [email protected]

    Web: http://www.hhs.csus.edu/HomePages/KHS/Quintana/


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