Indian Civilizations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Indian civilizations l.jpg
Download
1 / 73

Indian Civilizations Paleolithic and Neolithic Cultures Diverse Paleolithic Cultures on Indian subcontinent Neolithic pottery and hunting tools in present-day Pakistan, c. 5500 bc.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Indian Civilizations

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Indian civilizations l.jpg

Indian Civilizations


Paleolithic and neolithic cultures l.jpg

Paleolithic and Neolithic Cultures

  • Diverse Paleolithic Cultures on Indian subcontinent

  • Neolithic pottery and hunting tools in present-day Pakistan, c. 5500 bc.

  • Although a bit later than Near East, cultures are generally considered of independent origin on most, if not all of Indian subcontinent.


Indus valley civilization c 2500 1750 bc l.jpg

Indus Valley Civilizationc. 2500-1750 bc

  • Fertile floodplains of Indus River

  • 2 major cities: Harappa and Mohenjo Dara

  • Civilization flourished for about 500 years


Indus valley civilization l.jpg

Indus Valley Civilization

  • Vast territory united in homogeneous culture suggests strong centralized government, integrated economy and good internal communications


City layout in harappa and mohenjo daro l.jpg

City Layout in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro

  • N-S, E-W grid of avenues

  • walled citadel on western edge of city

  • cemeteries on periphery

  • private houses built around central courtyard


Building construction of burnt brick l.jpg

Building Construction of Burnt Brick


Harappa l.jpg

Harappa

  • large granary for food storage


Mohenjo daro l.jpg

Mohenjo-daro

  • Elaborate plumbing facilities unequalled until Roman times

Private baths

Household wells


Standard weights and measures l.jpg

Standard Weights and Measures


Writing l.jpg

Writing

  • Indus inscriptions are found only on small objects, mostly stone seals and on pottery.

  • About 3700 inscriptions are presently known.

  • The inscriptions are all extremely brief, averaging not more than about five signs in a text. Longer inscriptions might have been written on palm leaves or cloth which have perished.

  • Sanskrit or Dravidian language?


Seals l.jpg

Seals


Unicorn seal most common motif on indus seals l.jpg

Unicorn Sealmost common motif on Indus seals


Slide14 l.jpg

Seals

Bull

Bison


Material culture l.jpg

Material Culture

  • Fine bronze and stone statues

  • Copper and bronze tools and vessels

  • Black-on-red painted pottery

  • Silver and gold vessels and jewelry

  • Dyed woven fabric

  • Flat stamp stone seals


Statue of priest king l.jpg

Statue of Priest-King


Stone and terra cotta sculptures l.jpg

Stone and Terra-cotta Sculptures


Gold and agate ornaments l.jpg

Gold and Agate Ornaments


Painted burial pottery l.jpg

Painted Burial Pottery


Cooking pots and vessels l.jpg

Cooking Pots and Vessels

Terra-cotta

Copper/bronze


Slide21 l.jpg

Toys

Ox-carts

Whistles


Economy l.jpg

Economy

  • Thriving agriculture: wheat, barley, peas, lentils, sesame, cotton

  • Cattle, dogs, sheep, fowl, water buffalo

  • Cotton weaving, metalworking, wheel-driven pottery

  • Trade contacts in Mesopotamia, central Asia, possibly Arabia and prehistoric Greek cultures


Religion l.jpg

Religion

  • Elaborate bathing facilities suggest ritual bathing and purification rites

  • Recurrent images:

    • pipal tree & swastika -- also in Hindu imagery

    • humped bull -- animal worship?

    • tiger, snake, unicorn

    • “Lord of All Creatures” -- merges with Shiva

    • pregnant & madonna female figures -- prefiguration of Devi, Shiva’s consort


Elaborate public baths l.jpg

Elaborate Public Baths


Libation vessels l.jpg

Libation Vessels


Three headed totemic animal l.jpg

Three-headed Totemic Animal

Antelope

Unicorn

Bull


Male deity l.jpg

Male Deity


Gods and goddesses l.jpg

Gods and Goddesses


Miniature mask from mohenjo daro of bearded horned deity l.jpg

Miniature mask from Mohenjo-daro of bearded horned deity


Religious ritual l.jpg

Religious Ritual


End of indus civilization l.jpg

End of Indus Civilization

  • Began to decline during early 2nd millenium bce

  • Possible causes:

    • abnormal flooding of Indus River

    • ecological destruction -- baked bricks of construction led to deforestation

    • no firm evidence that invading Aryans destroyed civilization

Dravidan Hero Stone


Indo aryan invasions c 2000 bce 1500 bce l.jpg

Indo-Aryan Invasionsc.2000 bce-1500 bce

  • Aryas -- name of peoples who migrated from steppelands between Eastern Europe and Central Asia into Europe, Greece, Anatolia, the Iranian plateau and India in the 2nd and 1st millenia bc.

  • Warlike peoples with horse-drawn chariots conquered the Dravidians of central India

  • “Aryan” -- 19th c. term used to describe language group now called Indo-European.


Vedic aryan culture l.jpg

Vedic-Aryan Culture

  • Semi-nomadic warriors -- migrated in small tribal groups

  • Cattle herders and horsemen

  • Culture flourished for nearly a millenium without writing or building large cities

  • Language: Vedic Sanskrit > Sanskrit


Vedic texts l.jpg

Vedic Texts

  • Texts date from 1700 bc - 500 bc

  • Veda means “Knowledge” -- the eternal wisdom realized by ancient seers and preserved over thousands of years by professional reciters in unbroken oral transmission

  • 4 main texts:

    • Rig Veda -- 1028 hymns --c.1700 bc-1000 bc

    • Upanishads -- philosophical poems -- c.700 bc

    • Valmiki’s Ramayana -- epic -- 6th c. bc

    • The Mahabharata -- epic -- 400 bc-400 ad


Society l.jpg

Society

  • Patrilineal descent and inheritance

  • Patriarchal family -- monogamous, widows could remarry

  • Kinship groups -- tribes ruled by rajas/ kings (cf. Latin rex), warrior leader

  • Brahman -- chief priest. Powers of priestly class increased with those of king

  • Two classes -- noble and common --evolved into four classes


Caste system l.jpg

Caste System

  • Four classes:

    • Brahman -- priestly

    • Kshatriya -- warrior/noble

    • Vaishya -- peasant/tradesman

    • Shudra-- servant

    • Numerous subgroups known as castes within the four classes

  • Dasas -- darker, conquered peoples -- socially excluded


Material culture38 l.jpg

Material Culture

  • Gray painted pottery

  • Wood and thatch, mud-walled houses

  • Measured wealth in cattle

  • Gold ornamentation

  • Wool

  • Alcoholic drink and soma

  • Highly developed music -- singing and dancing

  • Gambling -- especially dice games

  • Writing -- c. 700 bc-500 bc -- scorned for sacred texts


Slide39 l.jpg

Rama and his allies begin the attack on Lanka, by Sahib Din. From a manuscript of the Ramayana, Udaipur, 1652


Vedic religion l.jpg

Vedic Religion

  • Priests (Brahmans) serving a military aristocracy

  • Numerous gods connected to natural forces

    • Indra -- god of war and storms

    • Varuna -- guarded cosmic order

    • Agni -- god of fire -- sacrifices, hearth, home

    • Vishnu -- god of the sun

    • Rudra -- the archer

    • Soma -- god of hallucinogenic soma plant

    • Ushas -- goddess of dawn -- one of few female divinities


Jainism l.jpg

Jainism

  • Vardhamana Mahavira was born in a village near Vaishali in north Bihar. His father was a ruler of that area and his mother a princess. At the age of thirty. he left home and started practicing penances in search of knowledge. After twelve years, he attained the state called Nirvana (enlightenment).

Mahavira (540 BC - 467 BC) founded the sect of Jainism.


Jainism42 l.jpg

Jainism

  • Emerged 6th c. bce

  • Total respect for animal life

  • Made farming and husbandry impossible

  • Jains became merchants – art patrons and now among the the wealthiest inhabitants of India

A carved ceiling in the Jain temple at Mt. Abu, ca. 9th-13th century A D.


Evolution of hinduism indus influences l.jpg

Evolution of Hinduism:Indus Influences

  • Mother goddess

  • Bull figure: Nandi – still the symbol of Congress Party

  • Shiva cult:

    • seals with Shiva figure

    • lingam stones -- emblem of Shiva

    • Shiva cult may be world’s oldest surviving cult


Evolution of hinduism vedic influences l.jpg

Evolution of Hinduism:Vedic Influences

  • Vishnu – preserver god

  • Sanskrit as language of religious learning

  • Vedic hymns -- nucleus for more abstract religious thought

  • Notions of Hell (House of Clay) and Heaven (World of the Fathers)

  • Karma: action determines destiny

  • Upanishads: through philosophical interpretation -- inner meaning of traditional truths, ascetic teachings


Hinduism all embracing structure of thought l.jpg

Hinduism:all-embracing structure of thought

  • All creation linked in huge web of being

  • Transmigration of souls through various life forms

  • Proper behavior linked to purgation and renewal

  • Dharma: the duty of the believer


Invasion of alexander the great 327 325 bce l.jpg

Invasion of Alexander the Great327-325 bce

  • Spring of 327 BC, Alexander and his army marched into India

  • His goal was to reach the Ocean on the southern edge of the world

  • Alexander sought out, the Brahmins, and debated them on philosophical issues.


Maurya empire 4th c bce 2nd c bce l.jpg

Maurya Empire4th c. bce -- 2nd c. bce

  • Response to power-vacuum created by Alexander the Great’s conquest of northern India c. 326 bce

  • First emperor Chandragupta Maurya (r.324-301 bce)

  • Ashoka (r.269-232 bce) conquered and ruled almost entire sub-continent: encouraged spread of Buddhism

  • Last emperor assassinated 184 bc


Siddhartha gautama sakya buddha ca 563 483 bce l.jpg

Siddhartha Gautama Sakya: Buddha ca. 563-483 bce

  • Prophesied to be king or world redeemer at birth

  • A prince who gave up his wealth to find escape from human suffering

  • Studied with Hindu masters

  • Became an ascetic

  • Meditated under Bo tree for 49 days and nights until he experienced enlightenment

  • Became a wandering preacher and teacher dedicated to help others achieve Nirvana


Buddhism l.jpg

Buddhism

  • A religion without a god

  • Each individual must find his/her own way to enlightenment

  • Four Noble Truths:

    • Life consists of suffering, impermanence, imperfection, incompleteness

    • The cause of suffering is selfishness

    • Suffering and selfishness can be brought to an end

    • The answer to the problem of suffering is the Eight-fold Path


The eight fold path l.jpg

The Eight-Fold Path

  • Knowledge of the Four Noble Truths

  • Right aspiration toward enlightenment

  • Right speech that is honest and charitable

  • Right conduct: no drinking, killing, lying, lust

  • Right living

  • Right effort

  • Right thinking with emphasis on self-awareness

  • Right use of meditation


Bactria gandharan culture l.jpg

Bactria: Gandharan Culture


Kushan empire l.jpg

Kushan Empire


Gupta era 320 ce 550 ce l.jpg

Gupta Era 320 ce — 550 ce

  • Gupta dynasty was founded by Chandra Gupta I

  • Development of Mahayana Buddhism

  • Classical Age in north India

  • Cave paintings at Ajanta

  • Shakuntala, Jataka, Panchatantra and Kamasutra were written

  • Aryabhatta’s Astronomy.


Ajanta l.jpg

AJANTA

.

  • During the 4th century A. D. in a remote valley, work began on the Ajanta caves to create a complex of Buddhist monasteries and prayer halls.

  • As centuries passed, numerous Buddhist monks and artisans dug out a set of twenty-nine caves, converting some to cells, and others to monasteries and Buddhist temples.

  • These caves are adorned with elaborate sculptures and paintings which have withstood the ravages of time


Kalidasa fl 5 th c l.jpg

Kalidasafl. 5th c.

  • The dramatist and poet is regarded as the greatest figure in classical Sanskrit literature.

  • His three surviving plays are Sakuntala (or Shakuntala), Vikramorvasi, and Malavikagnimitra.

  • These court dramas in verse (nataka) relate fanciful or mythological tales of profound romantic love intensified and matured by adversity.

  • In Kalidasa's two epics, Raghuvansa and Kumarasambhava, delicate descriptions of nature are mingled with battle scenes.

  • The other poems of Kalidasa are shorter and almost purely lyrical.


Aryabhatta 476 550 l.jpg

Aryabhatta (476-550?)

  • Hindu astronomer and mathematician

  • Known to Arabs as Arjehir

  • 499: calculated pi as 3.1416

  • 499: calculated the length of the solar year as 365.358 days.

  • Postulated that the Earth was a sphere rotating on its own axis and revolving around the Sun

  • Discovered the exact cause of eclipses.


Muslim dominance l.jpg

Muslim Dominance

  • 711 -- Arabs take Sind

  • 11th c. -- Invasions of Muslims from Central Asia led to political dominance of Muslims in N. India and introduction of Persian culture and Islam into South Asia

  • Development of Sufism


Timur lang tamerlane sacks delhi 1398 99 l.jpg

Timur Lang (Tamerlane) sacks Delhi 1398-99

  • Mongol ruler who attempted to reclaim Genghis Khan’s empire

  • Attacked India and conquered Delhi after slaughtering 100,000 captives


Vasco da gama reaches india 1498 l.jpg

Vasco da Gama reaches India 1498

  • Opened the Indian or Cape Route for regular sailings between East and West

  • Expansion and consolidation of Portugese empire and trade, dissemination of Portugese culture and Christianity

  • Portugese settlements in Goa and Cochin

  • 1524: Da Gama named Portugese viceroy in India by King John III.


Moghul empire islamic 1526 1858 l.jpg

Moghul Empire(Islamic) 1526-1858

  • Unification of N. India and parts of S. India under its rule

  • Amalgam of Persian and Indian culture created in courts and territories

  • Establishment of trading outposts in India by Europeans:

    • 1609: Dutch

    • 1612: English

    • 1674: French


Rise of regional powers l.jpg

Rise of Regional Powers

  • Weakening of Moghul authority frees local Muslim rulers

  • Rise of indigenous regional powers

    • Sikhs -- Punjab

    • Rajputs -- Rajasthan

    • Marathas -- West India

  • 1757: Battle of Plassey: victory of Nawab of Bengal gives East India Company control of Bengal and begins expansion of British power in India


British empire 1800 1947 l.jpg

British Empire1800 - 1947

  • Political dominance of British introduces Western culture, language, methods of government and technology into urban centers


Slide67 l.jpg

Paddle-steamer on the Hooghly, watercolour over a lithographed outline, Kalighat painting by Becaram Das Datta, 1857


Independence 1947 l.jpg

Independence1947

  • Independence from British rule

  • Partition of Indian subcontinent into countries of India and Pakistan (East and West)

  • 1971: creation of Bangladesh from East Pakistan

Mahatma Gandhi, 1869-1948


Indian independence jawaharal nehru 1889 1964 l.jpg

Indian IndependenceJawaharal Nehru (1889-1964)

  • Nehru graduated from Cambridge University, and returned to India in 1912

  • . Over the next thirty years, he rose to become the top political leader of the Indian National Congress Party and its struggle for independence from Britain.

  • He was jailed seven times.

  • After independence he served as India first Prime Minister from 1947 until he died in May, 1964.

  • He was also a great internationalist, and one of the founders of the non-aligned movement.


Creation of pakistan mohammad ali jinnah 1876 1948 l.jpg

Creation of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)

  • In Pakistan, Jinnah is known as "Quaid-e-Azam," or Father of the Nation

  • An early member of the Congress Party and "Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity," he later parted ways with Gandhi and Nehru and worked for an independent homeland for the Muslims of British India

  • Served as President of the All-India Muslim League from 1934 onwards.

  • At midnight between August 14th and 15th, 1947 he led Pakistan into simultaneous freedom with India from the British Empire.


  • Login