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Chinese Military Chinese Military: An Overview Air Force (ChinaToday) 2,556 jet fighters 400 ground attack jets 470,000 airmen Ground Force 1.9 million men 14,000 tanks 14,500 artillery pieces 453 helicopters Chinese Military: An Overview Navy 250,000 sailors 63 submarines

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Chinese Military: An Overview

  • Air Force (ChinaToday)

    • 2,556 jet fighters

    • 400 ground attack jets

    • 470,000 airmen

  • Ground Force

    • 1.9 million men

    • 14,000 tanks

    • 14,500 artillery pieces

    • 453 helicopters


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Chinese Military: An Overview

  • Navy

    • 250,000 sailors

    • 63 submarines

    • 18 destroyers

    • 35 frigates

  • Second Artillery Force

    • Strategic missile force

  • People’s Armed Police


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Chinese Military: An Overview

  • Chinese Military

    • People’s Liberation Army

      • Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (1927-36)

      • Eighth-route Army (1936-1945)

      • People’s Liberation Army (1946-present)

  • Role of Army in Chinese Revolution

    • “Political power comes out of the barrel of a gun”

    • Guns against counter-revolutionaries

    • Guns against intra-Party opportunists


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Chinese Military: An Overview

  • CCP & Army

    • Party commands gun.

      • Political commissar in charge

        • Zhu & Mao

        • Liu & Deng

  • Defining Features of Chinese Military

    • A political instrument

      • A tool of the Party to overthrow KMT

      • An org to mobilize masses

      • A force of social & pol stability


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Chinese Military: An Overview

  • Defining Features of Chinese Military

    • Human will determines outcome of war

      • No blind faith in the power of weapons

      • Good strategies & planning best fighting power

    • Army & masses

      • “The army is the fish and the people are the water”

      • Importance of rapport w people


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Chinese Military: An Overview

  • Defining Features of Chinese Military

    • People’s War

      • Mobilization of masses in national defense

      • Organization of paramilitary groups

      • Mobile guerilla-type tactics

      • Avoid confrontation when disadvantaged

      • Attack from a vantage point

      • Protracted war

    • Economic functions

      • Self-sufficiency


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Chinese Military: An Overview

  • Defining Features of Chinese Military

    • Economic functions

      • Self-sufficiency

        • army-maintained farms

        • Production & Construction Corps

        • Reclamation

        • Railway construction

    • Equality

      • Fair treatment of soldiers

      • “Sharing weal and woe”


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Chinese Military: An Overview

  • Defining Features of Chinese Military

    • A model for society

      • Disciplined

      • Devotion to duty

      • Loyal to the Party

      • Unafraid of hardship & death

    • Lack of clear distinction btwn army & civilian leadership

      • 1st generation leaders: all military commanders


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Chinese Military: An Overview

  • Defining Features of Chinese Military

    • Lack of clear distinction btwn army & civilian leadership

      • 1st generation leaders: all military commanders

        • Mao: top military strategist & army political commissar

        • Zhu De: Red Army commander-in-chief

        • Zhou Enlai: Vice chairman of military commission


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Evolution of Chinese Military

  • Rise of Professionalism

    • Korean War

      • Weaknesses in

        • Firepower

        • Air support

        • Logistics

        • Communications

    • Calls for military modernization

      • Professionalization & specialization

      • Soviet military training & experience


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Evolution of Chinese Military

  • Rise of Professionalism

    • Soviet-assisted military modernization

      • Soviet hardware import

      • Soviet weapons making know-how transfer

      • Soviet expert-assisted professional training

      • Increase of military training & reduction of political participation

      • Adoption of Soviet-type rank system

      • Conscription


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Evolution of Chinese Military

  • Setback of ProfessionalismTwo factors

    • Khrushchev & Soviet Model

    • Downfall of Peng Dehuai

      Questions & Manifestations

    • Chinese experience or Soviet model?

      • Indigenous approach to defense

    • Primacy of people or weapons?

      • People being the determinant


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Evolution of Chinese Military

  • Setback of ProfessionalismQuestions & Manifestations

    • Modern warfare or People’s War?

      • “Long live the People’s War”

    • Army officers or Party in command?

      • Abolition of rank system


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Evolution of Chinese Military

  • Revival of Professionalism(1978 – present)

    • Forward defense strategy

    • More attention to professional training

    • Advanced weaponry

    • Modern & responsive force

    • Professional training

    • Party control & separation of army from party


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Strategic Issues

    • China as a rising economic superpower

      • “rise of China”

      • “the waking dragon”

      • “China: a rival or partner”

      • “Is China status quo power?”

    • China on the world oil market

      • “China in Latin America”

      • “China, Africa, and Oil”

      • China, US in Middle East, energy competition


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Strategic Issues

    • China as a rising economic superpower

    • China on the world oil market

    • China and Russia

      • China, Russia, Peace Mission 2005

      • Putin in China, 2006

    • Security in Northeast Asia

      • Taiwan

      • Japan

      • Korea


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Strategic Issues

    • China as a rising economic superpower


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Strategic Issues

    • China as a rising economic superpower

      • China’s GDP Growth Projection

        • 2010: $2.6 trillion

        • 2015: $3.5 trillion

        • 2020: $4.8 trillion

        • 2025: 6.4 trillion

          Source: Military Power of the PRC: A Report to Congress, 2005


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Strategic Issues

    • China as a rising economic superpower

      • China’s military Spending Projection


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Strategic Issues

    • China on the World Oil Market


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Strategic Issues

    • China & Russia

      • Common Interest

        • Territorial integrity

        • North Korea, Iran, NATO expansion

        • Trade & economy


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Strategic Issues

    • Security in Northeast Asia

      • Beijing – Taipei

      • Conflict over “One China”


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

Ground Force Comparison: Beijing vs Taipei


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Beijing vs Taipei: Air force


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Beijing vs Taipei: Navy


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Strategic Issues

    • Strategic objectives of China’s military

      • Internal political stability

      • Status quo across Taiwan Straits

      • Protection of China’s lifelines on the high seas

      • A deterrent to miscalculation in Korean Peninsula

    • Is China’s rise peaceful?


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Chinese Military in the 21st Century

  • Strategic Issues

    • Is China’s rise peaceful?

      • Zbigniew BrzezinskiChina’s rise shall be peaceful. China’s leaders are rationale, pragmatic; They care about growth, people’s livelihood, and own rule.

      • John MearsheimerChina is no difference from USA; China shall strive for regional hegemony; China’s rise cannot be friction-free.


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