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Chinese Military Chinese Military: An Overview Air Force (ChinaToday) 2,556 jet fighters 400 ground attack jets 470,000 airmen Ground Force 1.9 million men 14,000 tanks 14,500 artillery pieces 453 helicopters Chinese Military: An Overview Navy 250,000 sailors 63 submarines

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chinese military an overview
Chinese Military: An Overview
  • Air Force (ChinaToday)
    • 2,556 jet fighters
    • 400 ground attack jets
    • 470,000 airmen
  • Ground Force
    • 1.9 million men
    • 14,000 tanks
    • 14,500 artillery pieces
    • 453 helicopters
chinese military an overview3
Chinese Military: An Overview
  • Navy
    • 250,000 sailors
    • 63 submarines
    • 18 destroyers
    • 35 frigates
  • Second Artillery Force
    • Strategic missile force
  • People’s Armed Police
chinese military an overview4
Chinese Military: An Overview
  • Chinese Military
    • People’s Liberation Army
      • Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (1927-36)
      • Eighth-route Army (1936-1945)
      • People’s Liberation Army (1946-present)
  • Role of Army in Chinese Revolution
    • “Political power comes out of the barrel of a gun”
    • Guns against counter-revolutionaries
    • Guns against intra-Party opportunists
chinese military an overview5
Chinese Military: An Overview
  • CCP & Army
    • Party commands gun.
      • Political commissar in charge
        • Zhu & Mao
        • Liu & Deng
  • Defining Features of Chinese Military
    • A political instrument
      • A tool of the Party to overthrow KMT
      • An org to mobilize masses
      • A force of social & pol stability
chinese military an overview6
Chinese Military: An Overview
  • Defining Features of Chinese Military
    • Human will determines outcome of war
      • No blind faith in the power of weapons
      • Good strategies & planning best fighting power
    • Army & masses
      • “The army is the fish and the people are the water”
      • Importance of rapport w people
chinese military an overview7
Chinese Military: An Overview
  • Defining Features of Chinese Military
    • People’s War
      • Mobilization of masses in national defense
      • Organization of paramilitary groups
      • Mobile guerilla-type tactics
      • Avoid confrontation when disadvantaged
      • Attack from a vantage point
      • Protracted war
    • Economic functions
      • Self-sufficiency
chinese military an overview8
Chinese Military: An Overview
  • Defining Features of Chinese Military
    • Economic functions
      • Self-sufficiency
        • army-maintained farms
        • Production & Construction Corps
        • Reclamation
        • Railway construction
    • Equality
      • Fair treatment of soldiers
      • “Sharing weal and woe”
chinese military an overview9
Chinese Military: An Overview
  • Defining Features of Chinese Military
    • A model for society
      • Disciplined
      • Devotion to duty
      • Loyal to the Party
      • Unafraid of hardship & death
    • Lack of clear distinction btwn army & civilian leadership
      • 1st generation leaders: all military commanders
chinese military an overview10
Chinese Military: An Overview
  • Defining Features of Chinese Military
    • Lack of clear distinction btwn army & civilian leadership
      • 1st generation leaders: all military commanders
        • Mao: top military strategist & army political commissar
        • Zhu De: Red Army commander-in-chief
        • Zhou Enlai: Vice chairman of military commission
evolution of chinese military
Evolution of Chinese Military
  • Rise of Professionalism
    • Korean War
      • Weaknesses in
        • Firepower
        • Air support
        • Logistics
        • Communications
    • Calls for military modernization
      • Professionalization & specialization
      • Soviet military training & experience
evolution of chinese military12
Evolution of Chinese Military
  • Rise of Professionalism
    • Soviet-assisted military modernization
      • Soviet hardware import
      • Soviet weapons making know-how transfer
      • Soviet expert-assisted professional training
      • Increase of military training & reduction of political participation
      • Adoption of Soviet-type rank system
      • Conscription
evolution of chinese military13
Evolution of Chinese Military
  • Setback of ProfessionalismTwo factors
    • Khrushchev & Soviet Model
    • Downfall of Peng Dehuai

Questions & Manifestations

    • Chinese experience or Soviet model?
      • Indigenous approach to defense
    • Primacy of people or weapons?
      • People being the determinant
evolution of chinese military14
Evolution of Chinese Military
  • Setback of ProfessionalismQuestions & Manifestations
    • Modern warfare or People’s War?
      • “Long live the People’s War”
    • Army officers or Party in command?
      • Abolition of rank system
evolution of chinese military15
Evolution of Chinese Military
  • Revival of Professionalism(1978 – present)
    • Forward defense strategy
    • More attention to professional training
    • Advanced weaponry
    • Modern & responsive force
    • Professional training
    • Party control & separation of army from party
chinese military in the 21 st century
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Strategic Issues
    • China as a rising economic superpower
      • “rise of China”
      • “the waking dragon”
      • “China: a rival or partner”
      • “Is China status quo power?”
    • China on the world oil market
      • “China in Latin America”
      • “China, Africa, and Oil”
      • China, US in Middle East, energy competition
chinese military in the 21 st century17
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Strategic Issues
    • China as a rising economic superpower
    • China on the world oil market
    • China and Russia
      • China, Russia, Peace Mission 2005
      • Putin in China, 2006
    • Security in Northeast Asia
      • Taiwan
      • Japan
      • Korea
chinese military in the 21 st century18
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Strategic Issues
    • China as a rising economic superpower
chinese military in the 21 st century19
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Strategic Issues
    • China as a rising economic superpower
      • China’s GDP Growth Projection
        • 2010: $2.6 trillion
        • 2015: $3.5 trillion
        • 2020: $4.8 trillion
        • 2025: 6.4 trillion

Source: Military Power of the PRC: A Report to Congress, 2005

chinese military in the 21 st century20
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Strategic Issues
    • China as a rising economic superpower
      • China’s military Spending Projection
chinese military in the 21 st century21
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Strategic Issues
    • China on the World Oil Market
chinese military in the 21 st century22
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Strategic Issues
    • China & Russia
      • Common Interest
        • Territorial integrity
        • North Korea, Iran, NATO expansion
        • Trade & economy
chinese military in the 21 st century23
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Strategic Issues
    • Security in Northeast Asia
      • Beijing – Taipei
      • Conflict over “One China”
chinese military in the 21 st century24
Chinese Military in the 21st Century

Ground Force Comparison: Beijing vs Taipei

chinese military in the 21 st century25
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Beijing vs Taipei: Air force
chinese military in the 21 st century26
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Beijing vs Taipei: Navy
chinese military in the 21 st century27
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Strategic Issues
      • Strategic objectives of China’s military
        • Internal political stability
        • Status quo across Taiwan Straits
        • Protection of China’s lifelines on the high seas
        • A deterrent to miscalculation in Korean Peninsula
      • Is China’s rise peaceful?
chinese military in the 21 st century28
Chinese Military in the 21st Century
  • Strategic Issues
      • Is China’s rise peaceful?
        • Zbigniew BrzezinskiChina’s rise shall be peaceful. China’s leaders are rationale, pragmatic; They care about growth, people’s livelihood, and own rule.
        • John MearsheimerChina is no difference from USA; China shall strive for regional hegemony; China’s rise cannot be friction-free.
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