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Subordination & Content Clauses. Teresa Navés [email protected] www.ub.edu/GRAL/Naves http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/2 (Search: Naves). Reference Grammars.

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subordination content clauses

Subordination & Content Clauses

Teresa Navés [email protected]

www.ub.edu/GRAL/Naveshttp://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/2(Search: Naves)

reference grammars
Reference Grammars

Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (Eds.). (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman.

Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J. (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (2nd ed.). London and New York: Longman.

Huddleston, R., & Pullum, G. K. (Eds.). (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. London: Cambridge University Press.

student s grammars
Student’s Grammars

Biber, D., S. Conrad, et al. (2002). Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman.

Greenbaum, S., & Quirk, R. (1990). A Student\'s Grammar of the English Language (1st ed.). Hong Kong: Longman.

Huddleston, R. and G. K. Pullum, Eds. (2005). A Student\'s Introduction to English Grammar. London, Cambridge University Press.

naves 200 comparison grid subordination
Biber et al. (1999, 2002)

Quirk et al. (1985)

Carter & McCarthy (2006)

Nominal

Relative (Adj.)

Adverbial

Other: Comparative, etc.

Huddelston

& Pullum (2002, 2005)

Content

Relative

Comparative

Naves (200) Comparison grid: Subordination
preliminary definions of subordination content clauses
Preliminary Definions of Subordination & Content Clauses
  • Subordination from Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics
  • Subordination from Carter & McCarthy (2006)
  • Content clauses from Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar
  • Content clauses from Wikipedia
  • Content clauses from Huddleston & Pullum (2002: 950)
slide7

http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t36.e3266&srn=1&ssid=956626726#FIRSTHIThttp://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t36.e3266&srn=1&ssid=956626726#FIRSTHIT

slide8

http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t36.e3266&srn=1&ssid=956626726#FIRSTHIThttp://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t36.e3266&srn=1&ssid=956626726#FIRSTHIT

subordination by carter mccarthy 2006
Subordination by Carter & McCarthy (2006)

Subordination 310

A subordinate clause is dependent on a main clause or dependent on another subordinate clause, and cannot in itself form a whole sentence.

Subordinate clauses are typically introduced by a class of words known as subordinators ( 311 and 312 below). Subordinators indicate the semantic relationship between the subordinate clause and the clause it is dependent on.

Subordinate clauses may be finite or non-finite.

297–298 for the difference between finite and non-finite clauses

content clause
Content clause

http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t28.e301&srn=1&ssid=240490607#FIRSTHIT

slide11

ADJUNCT

adjunct1. (In older usage.) Any word or words expanding the essential parts of the sentence; an optional, inessential, element in a structure.The term has been variously used for words or phrases considered to be of secondary importance, including vocatives, adjectives joined to nouns, and also some adverbs.In Jespersen\'s terminology it describes the functional role of a SECONDARY joined to a PRIMARY by JUNCTION.

1933b O. JESPERSEN A secondary can be joined to a primary in two essentially different ways, for which we use the terms Junction and Nexus. As separate names for the secondary in these two functions we shall use the terms Adjunct and Adnex.

In this usage, the term adjunct typically applies to an adjective in attributive position (e.g. a silly person).

http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t28.e301&srn=1&ssid=240490607#FIRSTHIT

slide12

ADJUNCT

2. (In present-day use, more specifically.) An element functioning like an adverb, whether a single-word adverb, an adverb phrase, or an adverb clause; sometimes the same as ADVERBIAL.Adjuncts in this sense are of course usually marginal to sentence structure and therefore omissible. Thus in Sadly, my neighbour died two months ago, both sadly and two months ago could be omitted, leaving a still grammatical, meaningful sentence.

http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t28.e301&srn=1&ssid=240490607#FIRSTHIT

slide13

ADJUNCT

3. (In some modern grammar.) A particular subclass of adverbial, contrasted with CONJUNCT, DISJUNCT, and (optionally) SUBJUNCT.In this categorization, only adverbials functioning as an element of clause structure (represented as A) are adjuncts. By this definition, clearly is an adjunct in the first sentence below, but not in the second:He spoke clearly and to the point Clearly, I could be wrong Adverbial adjuncts of this special type often refer to place, time, or process (including manner, means, instrument, and the agentive with the passive). In general, these adjuncts come in end position, after the verb (and object, if any). But other positions are possible, and frequency adjuncts usually come in mid position (e.g. they usually come).Adjuncts are sometimes divided on more functional grounds into PREDICATION and SENTENCE adjuncts.

http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t28.e301&srn=1&ssid=240490607#FIRSTHIT

content clause14
Content clause

http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t28.e301&srn=1&ssid=240490607#FIRSTHIT

content clause15
Content clause

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_clause

content clauses
Content clauses
  • We distinguish three main classes of finite subordinate clauses:
    • I couldn’t find the book that I wanted (relative)
    • He gave me more copies that I wanted (comparative)
    • You know that I wanted it (content)
  • Content clauses can be regarded as the default category of this dimention: they lack the special properties of relative and comparative clauses, and their structure is less different from the main clauses. (…)
  • The term content clauses reflects this default status: it suggests that the clause is simply selected for its syntactic content.

(Huddleston & Pullum, 2005, p 950)

slide17
Huddleston, R. and G. K. Pullum, Eds.(2005). A Student\'s Introduction to English Grammar. London, Cambridge University Press.
slide19

Chpt 10: Subord. & Content clauses

TOC:

  • Subordinate clauses
  • Clause type in content clauses
  • Declarative content clauses
  • Interrogative content clauses
  • Exclamative content clauses
1 subordinate clauses
1. Subordinate clauses

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

1 subordinate clauses21
1. Subordinate clauses

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

2 content clauses
2. Content Clauses

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

3 declarative content clauses
3. Declarative Content Clauses

3.1. Declarative content clauses

3.2. Declarative as complement

3.3. The mandative construction

3 1 declarative content clauses
3.1 Declarative Content Clauses

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

3 2 declaratives as complements
3.2 Declaratives as complements

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

3 3 the mandative contruction
3.3 The mandative contruction

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

4 interrogative content clauses
4. Interrogative content clauses

4.1. Introduction: Closed Interrogatives and the subordinator whether and if and Open interrogatives

4.2. Interrogatives as Complement

4.3. Interrogatives as Adjunt

4 1 interrogative content clauses
4.1. Interrogative Content Clauses

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

4 3 interrogative as complement
4.3. Interrogative as Complement

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

4 3 interrogatives as adjunct
4.3. Interrogatives as Adjunct

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

5 exclamative content clauses
5. Exclamative Content Clauses

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

5 exclamatives as complement
5. Exclamatives as Complement

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

exercises by d goss grubbs
Exercises by D. Goss-Grubbs

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

Examples from Huddleston & Pullum (2005) Chpt 10

quiz a by d goss grubbs
Quiz A by D. Goss-Grubbs

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

key to quiz a by d goss grubbs
Key to Quiz A by D. Goss-Grubbs

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

quiz b by d goss grubbs
Quiz B by D. Goss-Grubbs

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

key to quiz b by d goss grubbs
Key to Quiz B by D.Goss-Grubbs

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

quiz c by d goss grubbs
Quiz C by D. Goss-Grubbs

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

key to quiz c by d goss grubbs
Key to Quiz C by D. Goss-Grubbs

Source:http://staff.washington.edu/davidgg/ling100/

task 1 by t nav s
Task 1 by T. Navés

Analyse the following subordinate clauses following

  • Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives.
  • Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006), as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others.

1. He says that Liz is in Paris.

2. I wonder whether she is ill.

3. Tell me what you want.

4. Tell her what a bargain it is.

key to task 1 by t nav s
Key to Task 1 by T. Navés

Analyse the following subordinate clauses following

  • Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives.
  • Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others.

1. He says that Liz is in Paris. (a) Declarative content // (b) Nominal

2. I wonder whether she is ill. (a) Closed interrogative content. // (b) Conditional

3. Tell me what you want. (a) Open interrogative content // (b) Nom-Rel.

4. Tell her what a bargain it is. (a) Exclamative content // (b)Nom-Rel.

task 2 by t nav s
Task 2 by T. Navés

Analyse the following subordinate clauses following

  • Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives.
  • Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others.

5. They weren’t among the people who had been invited

6.More people came than had been invited

7. I don’t think that these people had been invited

key to task 2 by t nav s
Key to Task 2 by T. Navés

Analyse the following subordinate clauses following

  • Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives.
  • Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others.

5. They weren’t among the people who had been invited

(a) Relative // (b) Relative)

6.More people came than had been invited

(a) Comparative // (b) Comparative)

7. I don’t think that these people had been invited

(a) Declarative content // (b) Nominal)

task 3 by t nav s
Task 3 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

8. That I need help is clear

9.I left before the arrived

10. I know that it’s genuine

key to task 3 by t nav s
Key to Task 3 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

8. That I need help is clear

(a) Content with obligatory ‘that’ // (b) Nominal (Sbj)

9.I left before the arrived

(a) Content with inadmissible ‘that’ // (b) Adverbial

10. I know that it’s genuine

(a) Content with optional ‘that’ // (b) Nominal (DO)

task 4 by t nav s
Task 4 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives; say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

11. That they refused didn’t surprise us

12.It didn’t surprise us that they refused

13. She informed us that they had been insulted

key to task 4 by t nav s
Key to Task 4 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives; say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

11. That they refused didn’t surprise us

  • Declarative content with obligatory ‘that’ functioning as Subj //
  • Nominal (Subj)

12.It didn’t surprise us that they refused

  • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as Extraposed Subj //
  • Nominal (IO)

13. She informed us that they had been insulted

  • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as Internal complmt. of the V
  • Nominal (IO)
task 5 by t nav s
Task 5 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives; say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

14. I realise that you feel insulted

15.The problem is that we just can’t afford it

16. Your can’t ingnore the fact that he was drunk

key to task 5 by t nav s
Key to Task 5 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives; say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

14. I realise that you feel insulted

  • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as as Internal complmt. of the V
  • Nominal (Object Complement)

15.The problem is that we just can’t afford it

  • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as Internal complmt. of the V
  • Nominal (Subject Complement)

16. Your can’t ingnore the fact that he was drunk

  • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as complement of noun
  • Nominal (Complement of the HNP)
task 6 by t nav s
Task 6 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparatives; say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

17. I’m glad that you could come

18.You can go provided that your are carefull

19. Your can’t ingnore the fact that he was drunk

key to task 6 by t nav s
Key to Task 6 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparative; say whether the ‘that’ is obligatory, inadmissible or optional and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

17. I’m glad that you could come

  • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as complement of Adjective
  • Nominal (Postmodifier of the Head Adjective Phrase)

18.You can go provided that your are carefull

  • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as complement of Preposition
  • Nominal

19. Your can’t ingnore the fact that he was drunk

  • Declarative content with optional ‘that’ functioning as complement of noun
  • Nominal (Complement of the HNP)
task 7 by t nav s
Task 7 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparative and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

20. What caused the delay remains unclear

21. It remains unclear what caused the delay

22. I’ve discovered where they keep the key

key to task 7 by t nav s
Key to Task 7 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparative and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

20. What caused the delay remains unclear

  • Interrogative content functioning as Subject
  • Nominal relative (Subject)

21. It remains unclear what caused the delay

  • Interrogative content functioning as Extraposed Subject
  • Nominal relative (Extraposed Sbj)

22. I’ve discovered where they keep the key

  • Interrogative content internal complement of the verb
  • Nominal relative (DO)
task 8 by t nav s
Task 8 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparative and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

23. I asked them what progress they had made

24. The only issue is whether he was lying

25. The question whether it’s legal was ignored

key to task 8 by t nav s
Key to Task 8 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

23. I asked them what progress they had made

  • Interrogative content functioning as Internal complement of the verb
  • Nominal relative (IO)

24. The only issue is whether he was lying

  • Interrogative content functioning as Internal complement of the verb
  • Condtional (Adverbial) (Sbj complement)

25. The question whether it’s legal was ignored

  • Interrogativ content internal complement of noun
  • Condtional (Adverbial) (Postmodifier of the HNP)
task 9 by t nav s
Task 9 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparative and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

26. I’m uncertain what we can do about it

27. That depends on how much time we have

key to task 9 by t nav s
Key to Task 9 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparative and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

26. I’m uncertain what we can do about it

  • Interrogative content functioning as complement of adjective
  • Nominal relative (Complement of the HAdjP)

27. That depends on how much time we have

  • Interrogative content functioning as complement of preposition
  • Nominal Relative (Prepositional complement)
task 10 by t nav s
Task 10 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparative and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

28. What a bargain it was hadn’t struck me yet

29. It’s incredible how much he wanted to charge

30. I’d forgotten what a fine speaker she is

key to task 10 by t nav s
Key to Task 10 by T. Navés

Analyse the following content subordinate clauses

  • Following Huddleston & Pullum (2002, 2005) as declarative content, open or closed interrogative content, exclamative content, relatives or comparative and identify their function
  • Classify them according to Biber et al. (1999, 2002) & Carter & McCarthy (2006) as nominal, nominal relative, relatives, adverbial clauses, comparatives or others and identify their function

28. What a bargain it was hadn’t struck me yet

  • Exclamative content functioning as Subject
  • Nominal relative (Subject)

29. It’s incredible how much he wanted to charge

  • Exclamative content functioning as Extraposed subject
  • Nominal relative (Extraposed subject)

30. I’d forgotten what a fine speaker she is

  • Exclamative content functioning as Internal complement of verb
  • Nominal relative (DO)
online exercises by t nav s
Online exercises by T. Navés
  • Naves (2009) Quiz on Content Clauses based on Huddleston & Pullum available from http://www.ub.edu/GRAL/Naves/index.php?op=001563
  • Naves (2009) Quiz on Huddleston & Pullum\'s (2005) Chapter 10: Subordination and Content Clauses available from http://www.ub.edu/GRAL/Naves/index.php?op=001583
  • DGIII-Subordination and Content Clauses following Huddelston and Pullum (2005) by T. Navés [email protected]

http://campusvirtual.ub.edu/mod/quiz/view.php?id=259440

online exercises from the internet grammar by the survey of english usage university college london
Online exercises from The Internet Grammar by The Survey of English UsageUniversity College London
  • Clauses and Sentences p1: Clause HierarchyThe following sentence contains three clauses, which we\'ve labelled C1, C2, and C3. Decide whether the statements below are true or false. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/clauses/ex1.htm
  • Clauses and Sentences p2: Finite or Nonfinite?In each of the following sentences, decide whether the bracketed clauses are finite or nonfinite. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/clauses/ex2.htm
online exercises from the internet grammar by the survey of english usage university college london62
Online exercises from The Internet Grammar by The Survey of English UsageUniversity College London
  • Clauses and Sentences p4: Semantic Types of Subordinate ClausesIn each of the following sentences, we have bracketed a subordinate clause. Decide which semantic type it is, from the choices given. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/clauses/ex4.htm
  • Clauses and Sentences p5: Sentence TypesIn the following examples, determine the sentence type from the choices given. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/clauses/ex5.htm
main grammar references
Main Grammar References:

Biber, D., S. Conrad, et al. (2002). Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Longman.

Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (Eds.). (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. London: Longman.

Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (2006). Cambridge Grammar of English. A Comprehensive Guide. Spoken and Written English Grammar and Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

main grammar references64
Main Grammar References:

Greenbaum, S., & Quirk, R. (1990). A Student\'s Grammar of the English Language (1st ed.). Hong Kong: Longman.

Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J. (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (2nd ed.). London and New York: Longman.

Huddleston, R., & Pullum, G. K. (Eds.). (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. London: Cambridge University Press.

Huddleston, R. and G. K. Pullum, Eds. (2005). A Student\'s Introduction to English Grammar. London, Cambridge University Press

main dictionaries
Main Dictionaries:

Chalker, S., & Weiner, E. (1998). Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar. The Oxford Reference Online. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Matthews, P. H. (1997). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.

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