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Network Architecture & Standards






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Network Architecture & Standards. Unit 2, Chapter 3 & 4 Why Standards?. Objectives. Explain the importance of network architecture. Identify 802.x LAN standards as described by IEEE.
Network Architecture & Standards

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Slide 1

Network Architecture & Standards

Unit 2, Chapter 3 & 4

Why Standards?

Slide 2

Objectives

  • Explain the importance of network architecture.

  • Identify 802.x LAN standards as described by IEEE.

  • Match the seven layers of the OSI model to network equipment and their role in cross-platform interoperability

  • Describe the function of a network access PDU.

  • Differentiate between connectionless and connection-oriented protocols.

  • Describe selected basic functions of a protocol.

Slide 3

Architectures & Standards

  • Networks Architecture – Principles in the design and implementation of a network

    • Reduction in complexity, common solution

    • Isolate network complexities from users

    • Ability to connect different types of devices

    • Management of the network

  • Communications Standards – Rules to establish compatibility among similar products

  • View Points

    • Vendor – IBM, DEC, Microsoft, Novell

    • Industry – IEEE, ANSI, NIST

Slide 4

Vendor Technologies

  • Systems Network Architecture (SNA)

  • Digital Network Architecture (DNA)

  • Burroughs Network Architecture (BNA)

  • Novell (IPX/SPX - XNS)

  • Banyan Virtual Integrated Network Services(Vines - XNS)

Slide 5

IEEE 802 StandardsInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Slide 6

International Telecommunications Union

  • Most important telecommunications standards setting body

  • V. Standards – Connection of digital equipment to analog PSTN lines

  • X. Standards – Connection of digital equipment to digital lines

  • Development of the Open System Interconnect Model with International Standards Organization

    • Basis for interconnecting dissimilar systems

Slide 7

Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Model

Slide 8

OSI Model Layers

  • Application Layer (7)

    • Where user works with at a terminal

  • Presentation Layer (6)

    • Code conversion & data reformatting from application - network

  • Session Layer (5)

    • Establishing the communications rules(pacing, accounting)

    • Turns communications on & off

  • Transport Layer (4)

    • Identifies the actual address of recipient of the message

    • Responsible for ensuring data is transmitted (retransmission)

  • Network Layer (3)

    • Routing message to recipient

    • Establishes, maintains and terminates communications

  • Data Link Layer (2)

    • Establishing link between 2 points & packing data, block transfers

  • Physical Layer (1)

    • Electrical components for the communication

    • http://www.reskit.net/MCTFAQS/The%20OSI%20Model%20as%20explained%20by%20Laura.htm

Slide 9

More OSI

  • X.25 standard for data transmission

    • Used in packet switching networks

    • 1st 3 OSI layers (physical, data link, network)

  • Encapsulation: process that surrounds the original data or requests with control characters for routing and error checking

Slide 10

Protocol Data Unit

Slide 11

Internet Architecture Principles

  • Multiplexing

    • Multiple Independent data streams on one physical communication line

  • Survivability

    • Message gets through no matter what

  • Service Generality

    • Useful for multiple purposes

  • Diverse Network Technologies

    • Accommodate previous network technologies (Arpanet, Satellite-based networks….)

Slide 12

TCP/IP

  • Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol

  • Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA)

    • Arpanet

  • TCP/IP = 4 or 5 layers of OSI Model

Slide 13

OSI –TCP/IP Models

Slide 14

Protocol Stack

  • Protocol – Set of rules used for communication between 2 points on a network

  • What does the transportation header contain? Pg 76

Slide 15

Protocol Examples

Slide 16

Protocol Functions

  • Encapsulation: control information (Where going? Is it right? Which protocols to use?)

  • Fragmentation (Segmentation) & Re-assembly

  • Error Control: using a check character to determine an error in the network access layer

  • Synchronization

  • Ordered Deliver (Sequencing)

  • Addressing

  • Multiplexing

  • Transmission Services

Slide 17

Other Protocol Functions

  • Connection Control –

    • Connection Oriented – TCP

      • Established and maintained before successful transmission

    • Connectionless – UDP

      • Communication without establishing a connection (PING)

  • Ordered Delivery –

    • Important to maintain order of packets – connection oriented

  • Flow Control – Control data rate sent by transmitter

Slide 18

Other Protocol Functions

  • Error Control – Error Detection & Error Correction

    • Check Sum, retransmit

    • Sequence Numbering, retransmit

  • Addressing –

    • Network, Application

    • Layer dependent

  • Transmission Services

    • Message priority

Slide 19

Protocols

  • Transport

    • Ensure messages are exchanged reliably

    • Arrival of all data at the destination

    • Presentation in the same order as sent

    • Virtual Circuit – Route between sender & Receiver

  • Data Link

    • Communication Startup

    • Character Identification

    • PDU identification, how to process

    • Error Control, what scheme to use

    • Termination

Slide 20

Review Questions

1. Communications standards define what needs to be done but not how to do it.

a. True

b. False

Slide 21

Review Questions

2. Which field in a header tells the destination of a message or PDU?

a. address

b. flag

c. byte

d. none of the above

Slide 22

Review Questions

3. It is more difficult for a machine to process a code if all of the bits are of the same duration.

a. True

b. False

Slide 23

Review Questions

4. The combination of the first three layers of the OSI model is the standard for the ______________.

a. X.25 standard for data transmission

b. V. standard

c. consolidated transmission standard

d. Consolidated Transmission Protocol

Slide 24

Review Questions

5. When data or a request from one layer is passed down to another layer, the data are surrounded by control characters or other information. This process is called _____________.

a. enclosure

b. encapsulation

c. isolation

d. permutation

Slide 25

Review Questions

6. The process of reassembling a message a TCP/IP packetized stream of data that has been fragmented is called __________.

a. reassembly

b. reconstitution

c. segmentation

d. togetherness

Slide 26

Review Questions

7. It is much easier for a machine to process a code if ____________________.

a. it is a true binary code

b. all of the characters have the same number of bits

c. all of the bits are the same duration

d. all of the above

Slide 27

Review Questions

8. An example of a communications medium is ____________.

a. a telephone

b. a personal computer

c. a teleprinter

d. a copper wire

Slide 28

Review Questions

9. The PSTN is an example of a _____________.

a. mesh network

b. star network

c. bus network

d. ring network

Slide 29

Review Questions

10. The OSI layer responsible for establishing the communication rules between certain machines or applications is the ______________.

a. network layer

b. transport layer

c. session layer

d. data link layer

Slide 30

Homework

  • Assignment: Due Next Week

    • Review:

      • Chapter 3, pp. 48-66

      • Chapter 4, pp. 72-82

    • Read:

      • Chapter 5, pp. 90-101

      • Chapter 14, pp. 376-411

    • Complete:

      • Assignment 2.1: Chapter 3 & 4 Multiple Choice Questions

      • Assignment 2.2: Binary Exercise

      • Assignment 2.3: Draw OSI Model (pg 57) by Hand


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