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Network Architecture & Standards. Unit 2, Chapter 3 & 4 Why Standards?. Objectives. Explain the importance of network architecture. Identify 802.x LAN standards as described by IEEE.

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Network architecture standards

Network Architecture & Standards

Unit 2, Chapter 3 & 4

Why Standards?


Objectives
Objectives

  • Explain the importance of network architecture.

  • Identify 802.x LAN standards as described by IEEE.

  • Match the seven layers of the OSI model to network equipment and their role in cross-platform interoperability

  • Describe the function of a network access PDU.

  • Differentiate between connectionless and connection-oriented protocols.

  • Describe selected basic functions of a protocol.


Architectures standards
Architectures & Standards

  • Networks Architecture – Principles in the design and implementation of a network

    • Reduction in complexity, common solution

    • Isolate network complexities from users

    • Ability to connect different types of devices

    • Management of the network

  • Communications Standards – Rules to establish compatibility among similar products

  • View Points

    • Vendor – IBM, DEC, Microsoft, Novell

    • Industry – IEEE, ANSI, NIST


Vendor technologies
Vendor Technologies

  • Systems Network Architecture (SNA)

  • Digital Network Architecture (DNA)

  • Burroughs Network Architecture (BNA)

  • Novell (IPX/SPX - XNS)

  • Banyan Virtual Integrated Network Services(Vines - XNS)


Ieee 802 standards institute of electrical and electronics engineers
IEEE 802 StandardsInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers


International telecommunications union
International Telecommunications Union

  • Most important telecommunications standards setting body

  • V. Standards – Connection of digital equipment to analog PSTN lines

  • X. Standards – Connection of digital equipment to digital lines

  • Development of the Open System Interconnect Model with International Standards Organization

    • Basis for interconnecting dissimilar systems



Osi model layers
OSI Model Layers

  • Application Layer (7)

    • Where user works with at a terminal

  • Presentation Layer (6)

    • Code conversion & data reformatting from application - network

  • Session Layer (5)

    • Establishing the communications rules(pacing, accounting)

    • Turns communications on & off

  • Transport Layer (4)

    • Identifies the actual address of recipient of the message

    • Responsible for ensuring data is transmitted (retransmission)

  • Network Layer (3)

    • Routing message to recipient

    • Establishes, maintains and terminates communications

  • Data Link Layer (2)

    • Establishing link between 2 points & packing data, block transfers

  • Physical Layer (1)

    • Electrical components for the communication

    • http://www.reskit.net/MCTFAQS/The%20OSI%20Model%20as%20explained%20by%20Laura.htm


More osi
More OSI

  • X.25 standard for data transmission

    • Used in packet switching networks

    • 1st 3 OSI layers (physical, data link, network)

  • Encapsulation: process that surrounds the original data or requests with control characters for routing and error checking



Internet architecture principles
Internet Architecture Principles

  • Multiplexing

    • Multiple Independent data streams on one physical communication line

  • Survivability

    • Message gets through no matter what

  • Service Generality

    • Useful for multiple purposes

  • Diverse Network Technologies

    • Accommodate previous network technologies (Arpanet, Satellite-based networks….)


Tcp ip
TCP/IP

  • Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol

  • Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA)

    • Arpanet

  • TCP/IP = 4 or 5 layers of OSI Model


Osi tcp ip models
OSI –TCP/IP Models


Protocol stack
Protocol Stack

  • Protocol – Set of rules used for communication between 2 points on a network

  • What does the transportation header contain? Pg 76



Protocol functions
Protocol Functions

  • Encapsulation: control information (Where going? Is it right? Which protocols to use?)

  • Fragmentation (Segmentation) & Re-assembly

  • Error Control: using a check character to determine an error in the network access layer

  • Synchronization

  • Ordered Deliver (Sequencing)

  • Addressing

  • Multiplexing

  • Transmission Services


Other protocol functions
Other Protocol Functions

  • Connection Control –

    • Connection Oriented – TCP

      • Established and maintained before successful transmission

    • Connectionless – UDP

      • Communication without establishing a connection (PING)

  • Ordered Delivery –

    • Important to maintain order of packets – connection oriented

  • Flow Control – Control data rate sent by transmitter


Other protocol functions1
Other Protocol Functions

  • Error Control – Error Detection & Error Correction

    • Check Sum, retransmit

    • Sequence Numbering, retransmit

  • Addressing –

    • Network, Application

    • Layer dependent

  • Transmission Services

    • Message priority


Protocols
Protocols

  • Transport

    • Ensure messages are exchanged reliably

    • Arrival of all data at the destination

    • Presentation in the same order as sent

    • Virtual Circuit – Route between sender & Receiver

  • Data Link

    • Communication Startup

    • Character Identification

    • PDU identification, how to process

    • Error Control, what scheme to use

    • Termination


Review questions
Review Questions

1. Communications standards define what needs to be done but not how to do it.

a. True

b. False


Review questions1
Review Questions

2. Which field in a header tells the destination of a message or PDU?

a. address

b. flag

c. byte

d. none of the above


Review questions2
Review Questions

3. It is more difficult for a machine to process a code if all of the bits are of the same duration.

a. True

b. False


Review questions3
Review Questions

4. The combination of the first three layers of the OSI model is the standard for the ______________.

a. X.25 standard for data transmission

b. V. standard

c. consolidated transmission standard

d. Consolidated Transmission Protocol


Review questions4
Review Questions

5. When data or a request from one layer is passed down to another layer, the data are surrounded by control characters or other information. This process is called _____________.

a. enclosure

b. encapsulation

c. isolation

d. permutation


Review questions5
Review Questions

6. The process of reassembling a message a TCP/IP packetized stream of data that has been fragmented is called __________.

a. reassembly

b. reconstitution

c. segmentation

d. togetherness


Review questions6
Review Questions

7. It is much easier for a machine to process a code if ____________________.

a. it is a true binary code

b. all of the characters have the same number of bits

c. all of the bits are the same duration

d. all of the above


Review questions7
Review Questions

8. An example of a communications medium is ____________.

a. a telephone

b. a personal computer

c. a teleprinter

d. a copper wire


Review questions8
Review Questions

9. The PSTN is an example of a _____________.

a. mesh network

b. star network

c. bus network

d. ring network


Review questions9
Review Questions

10. The OSI layer responsible for establishing the communication rules between certain machines or applications is the ______________.

a. network layer

b. transport layer

c. session layer

d. data link layer


Homework
Homework

  • Assignment: Due Next Week

    • Review:

      • Chapter 3, pp. 48-66

      • Chapter 4, pp. 72-82

    • Read:

      • Chapter 5, pp. 90-101

      • Chapter 14, pp. 376-411

    • Complete:

      • Assignment 2.1: Chapter 3 & 4 Multiple Choice Questions

      • Assignment 2.2: Binary Exercise

      • Assignment 2.3: Draw OSI Model (pg 57) by Hand


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