Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching
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Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching. Education Foundations, SecEd, Week 6, Semester 1, 2012. Cognitive views of learning What is learning? Cognitivist vs. b ehaviourist view Three models Information processing model Constructivism

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Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

Education Foundations, SecEd, Week 6, Semester 1, 2012


Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

  • Cognitive views of learning

  • What is learning?

  • Cognitivist vs. behaviourist view

  • Three models

  • Information processing model

  • Constructivism

  • Individual / psychological constructivism

  • Social constructivism


What is learning

What is learning?

  • Learning involves “the acquisition or reorganization of the cognitive structures through which humans process and store information” (Good and Brophy, 1990, p. 187).

  • Memory, conceptual learning, thinking, and problem solving

  • History and context


Cognitivist vs behaviourist view of learning

Cognitivist vs. Behaviourist view of learning


Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

What are the patterns?


Three models

THREE models

  • From acquisition of knowledge to construction of knowledge

  • Information processing model

  • Personal / psychological constructivism

  • Social constructivism


Information processing model memory

Information-processing model: memory

  • Listen to the reading of two short paragraphs. As I finish reading each paragraph, write down as much as you can remember from what you’ve heard.


Impacts on memory

Impacts on memory

  • Meaning-making

  • Concentration and interference

  • Rehearsal

  • Contexts of learning and recalling

  • Motivation


From ebbinghaus to the computer model of the mind

From ebbinghaus to the computer model of the mind

Hermann Ebbinghaus


Forms of information processing

Forms of information processing

  • Stage / multi-store theory

  • Levels-of-processing theory

  • Connectionist theory


Stage theory of memory

Stage theory of memory

  • Sensory memory / register

Salvador Dali’s Slave Market with the Disappearing Bust of Voltaire


Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

  • Short-term or working memory

  • Elaboration / organisation:

    -- Connecting the info to what you already know

  • Rehearsal / repetition:

    -- Useful for retaining info you plan to use and then forget

  • ‘Chunking’


Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

  • Long-term memory

  • Executive control


Using the info processing approach in the classroom krause et al 2011 p 207

Using the info-processing approach in the classroom (Krause, et al., 2011, p.207)


Constructivism

constructivism

  • An umbrella term referring to a vast range of different theories

  • Piaget, Bruner, Ausubel, Lave, Palincsar, and Dewey

  • Is Vygotsky a constructivist? (Liu & Matthews, 2005)


Constructivism cont d

Constructivism, cont’d

  • Learner are active in constructing their own knowledge

  • Social interactions are important in knowledge construction

  • Individual / psychological constructivism

  • Social constructivism


Individual constructivism

Individual constructivism

  • Individual thinking and knowledge development

  • Not concerned with the ‘correct’ knowledge but with meaning-making

  • Knowledge originated from reflecting and (re)organising thoughts

  • Discovery learning

  • Inquiry and problem-based learning


Discovery learning woolfolk margetts 2010

Discovery learning (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2010)

  • Scenario:

  • You are being interviewed for a job in a school with students of a wide range of ethnicities and cultural backgrounds. The principal asks: ‘How would you teach abstract concepts to a student who just arrived in the country and can’t speak or read much in English?’

  • An example of a discovery learning lesson: What is fruit?


Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

Woolfolk & Margetts, 2010, p.306


Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

  • J. Bruner

  • Learning focusing on essential structure of a subject matter

  • Students identify and discover key structures and principles by themselves

  • Inductive reasoning

  • Intuitive thinking


Social constructivism

Social constructivism

  • Knowledge is constructed from social interactions and experience

  • Learning is contextualised by social and cultural environment

  • Development is the appropriation of cultural tools of reasoning and acting


Cognitive apprenticeship

Cognitive apprenticeship

  • Cooperative and collaborative learning

  • Situated learning and cognitive apprenticeship

  • Reciprocal teaching

  • An example: Apprenticeship in mathematics problem solving


References

references

  • Good, T. L. & Brophy, J. E. (1990) Educational psychology: a realistic approach, 4th ed., Longman, NY.

  • Liu, C. H. & Matthews, R. (2005) Vygotsky’s philosophy: constructivism and its criticisms examined, International Education Journal, 6 (3), pp.386-399.

  • Perkins, D. N. (1991). Technology meets constructivism: Do they make a marriage? Educational Technology , May, 18-23.

  • Woolfolk, A. & Margetts, K. (2010) Educational Psychology, Pearson, NSW.


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