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Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching. Education Foundations, SecEd, Week 6, Semester 1, 2012. Cognitive views of learning What is learning? Cognitivist vs. b ehaviourist view Three models Information processing model Constructivism

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Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

Education Foundations, SecEd, Week 6, Semester 1, 2012

  • Cognitive views of learning teaching

  • What is learning?

  • Cognitivist vs. behaviourist view

  • Three models

  • Information processing model

  • Constructivism

  • Individual / psychological constructivism

  • Social constructivism

What is learning
What is learning? teaching

  • Learning involves “the acquisition or reorganization of the cognitive structures through which humans process and store information” (Good and Brophy, 1990, p. 187).

  • Memory, conceptual learning, thinking, and problem solving

  • History and context

Cognitivist vs behaviourist view of learning
Cognitivist teaching vs. Behaviourist view of learning

Three models
THREE models teaching

  • From acquisition of knowledge to construction of knowledge

  • Information processing model

  • Personal / psychological constructivism

  • Social constructivism

Information processing model memory
Information-processing model: memory teaching

  • Listen to the reading of two short paragraphs. As I finish reading each paragraph, write down as much as you can remember from what you’ve heard.

Impacts on memory
Impacts on memory teaching

  • Meaning-making

  • Concentration and interference

  • Rehearsal

  • Contexts of learning and recalling

  • Motivation

Forms of information processing
Forms of information processing teaching

  • Stage / multi-store theory

  • Levels-of-processing theory

  • Connectionist theory

Stage theory of memory
Stage theory of memory teaching

  • Sensory memory / register

Salvador Dali’s Slave Market with the Disappearing Bust of Voltaire

  • Short-term or working memory teaching

  • Elaboration / organisation:

    -- Connecting the info to what you already know

  • Rehearsal / repetition:

    -- Useful for retaining info you plan to use and then forget

  • ‘Chunking’

Using the info processing approach in the classroom krause et al 2011 p 207
Using the info-processing approach in the classroom teaching(Krause, et al., 2011, p.207)

constructivism teaching

  • An umbrella term referring to a vast range of different theories

  • Piaget, Bruner, Ausubel, Lave, Palincsar, and Dewey

  • Is Vygotsky a constructivist? (Liu & Matthews, 2005)

Constructivism cont d
Constructivism, cont’d teaching

  • Learner are active in constructing their own knowledge

  • Social interactions are important in knowledge construction

  • Individual / psychological constructivism

  • Social constructivism

Individual constructivism
Individual constructivism teaching

  • Individual thinking and knowledge development

  • Not concerned with the ‘correct’ knowledge but with meaning-making

  • Knowledge originated from reflecting and (re)organising thoughts

  • Discovery learning

  • Inquiry and problem-based learning

Discovery learning woolfolk margetts 2010
Discovery learning teaching(Woolfolk & Margetts, 2010)

  • Scenario:

  • You are being interviewed for a job in a school with students of a wide range of ethnicities and cultural backgrounds. The principal asks: ‘How would you teach abstract concepts to a student who just arrived in the country and can’t speak or read much in English?’

  • An example of a discovery learning lesson: What is fruit?

  • J. Bruner teaching

  • Learning focusing on essential structure of a subject matter

  • Students identify and discover key structures and principles by themselves

  • Inductive reasoning

  • Intuitive thinking

Social constructivism
Social teachingconstructivism

  • Knowledge is constructed from social interactions and experience

  • Learning is contextualised by social and cultural environment

  • Development is the appropriation of cultural tools of reasoning and acting

Cognitive apprenticeship
Cognitive apprenticeship teaching

  • Cooperative and collaborative learning

  • Situated learning and cognitive apprenticeship

  • Reciprocal teaching

  • An example: Apprenticeship in mathematics problem solving

references teaching

  • Good, T. L. & Brophy, J. E. (1990) Educational psychology: a realistic approach, 4th ed., Longman, NY.

  • Liu, C. H. & Matthews, R. (2005) Vygotsky’s philosophy: constructivism and its criticisms examined, International Education Journal, 6 (3), pp.386-399.

  • Perkins, D. N. (1991). Technology meets constructivism: Do they make a marriage? Educational Technology , May, 18-23.

  • Woolfolk, A. & Margetts, K. (2010) Educational Psychology, Pearson, NSW.