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Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching. Education Foundations, SecEd, Week 6, Semester 1, 2012. Cognitive views of learning What is learning? Cognitivist vs. b ehaviourist view Three models Information processing model Constructivism

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cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

Cognitive explanations of learning and approaches to teaching

Education Foundations, SecEd, Week 6, Semester 1, 2012

slide2

Cognitive views of learning

  • What is learning?
  • Cognitivist vs. behaviourist view
  • Three models
  • Information processing model
  • Constructivism
  • Individual / psychological constructivism
  • Social constructivism
what is learning
What is learning?
  • Learning involves “the acquisition or reorganization of the cognitive structures through which humans process and store information” (Good and Brophy, 1990, p. 187).
  • Memory, conceptual learning, thinking, and problem solving
  • History and context
three models
THREE models
  • From acquisition of knowledge to construction of knowledge
  • Information processing model
  • Personal / psychological constructivism
  • Social constructivism
information processing model memory
Information-processing model: memory
  • Listen to the reading of two short paragraphs. As I finish reading each paragraph, write down as much as you can remember from what you’ve heard.
impacts on memory
Impacts on memory
  • Meaning-making
  • Concentration and interference
  • Rehearsal
  • Contexts of learning and recalling
  • Motivation
forms of information processing
Forms of information processing
  • Stage / multi-store theory
  • Levels-of-processing theory
  • Connectionist theory
stage theory of memory
Stage theory of memory
  • Sensory memory / register

Salvador Dali’s Slave Market with the Disappearing Bust of Voltaire

slide12

Short-term or working memory

  • Elaboration / organisation:

-- Connecting the info to what you already know

  • Rehearsal / repetition:

-- Useful for retaining info you plan to use and then forget

  • ‘Chunking’
slide13

Long-term memory

  • Executive control
constructivism
constructivism
  • An umbrella term referring to a vast range of different theories
  • Piaget, Bruner, Ausubel, Lave, Palincsar, and Dewey
  • Is Vygotsky a constructivist? (Liu & Matthews, 2005)
constructivism cont d
Constructivism, cont’d
  • Learner are active in constructing their own knowledge
  • Social interactions are important in knowledge construction
  • Individual / psychological constructivism
  • Social constructivism
individual constructivism
Individual constructivism
  • Individual thinking and knowledge development
  • Not concerned with the ‘correct’ knowledge but with meaning-making
  • Knowledge originated from reflecting and (re)organising thoughts
  • Discovery learning
  • Inquiry and problem-based learning
discovery learning woolfolk margetts 2010
Discovery learning (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2010)
  • Scenario:
  • You are being interviewed for a job in a school with students of a wide range of ethnicities and cultural backgrounds. The principal asks: ‘How would you teach abstract concepts to a student who just arrived in the country and can’t speak or read much in English?’
  • An example of a discovery learning lesson: What is fruit?
slide20

J. Bruner

  • Learning focusing on essential structure of a subject matter
  • Students identify and discover key structures and principles by themselves
  • Inductive reasoning
  • Intuitive thinking
social constructivism
Social constructivism
  • Knowledge is constructed from social interactions and experience
  • Learning is contextualised by social and cultural environment
  • Development is the appropriation of cultural tools of reasoning and acting
cognitive apprenticeship
Cognitive apprenticeship
  • Cooperative and collaborative learning
  • Situated learning and cognitive apprenticeship
  • Reciprocal teaching
  • An example: Apprenticeship in mathematics problem solving
references
references
  • Good, T. L. & Brophy, J. E. (1990) Educational psychology: a realistic approach, 4th ed., Longman, NY.
  • Liu, C. H. & Matthews, R. (2005) Vygotsky’s philosophy: constructivism and its criticisms examined, International Education Journal, 6 (3), pp.386-399.
  • Perkins, D. N. (1991). Technology meets constructivism: Do they make a marriage? Educational Technology , May, 18-23.
  • Woolfolk, A. & Margetts, K. (2010) Educational Psychology, Pearson, NSW.
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