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Chapter 8 Solutions. Solubility Percent Concentration Colloids and Suspensions. Solute and Solvent. Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances Solute The substance in the lesser amount Solvent The substance in the greater amount. Formation of solutions.

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Chapter 8 solutions
Chapter 8Solutions

Solubility

Percent Concentration

Colloids and Suspensions


Solute and solvent
Solute and Solvent

Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances

  • Solute

    The substance in the lesser amount

  • Solvent

    The substance in the greater amount



Nature of solutes in solutions
Nature of Solutes in Solutions

  • Spread evenly throughout the solution

  • Cannot be separated by filtration

  • Can be separated by evaporation

  • Not visible, solution appears transparent

  • May give a color to the solution


Types of solutions
Types of Solutions

air O2 gas and N2 gas gas/gas

soda CO2 gas in water gas/liquid

seawater NaCl in water solid/liquid

brass copper and zinc solid/solid


Formation of solutions solvation

H2O

Hydration

Na+

Cl-

Na+

Cl-

Dissolved

solute

H2O

Na+

Cl-

solute

Formation of solutions - solvation


Formation of solutions creating like like interactions
Formation of solutions - creating like-like interactions

Water

Most common solvent

A polar molecule

O-

a hydrogen bond

H +

H +



Formation of solutions creating like like interactions2

When NaCl(s) dissolves in water, the reaction can be written as

H2O

NaCl(s) Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)

solid separation of ions in water

Formation of solutions - creating like-like interactions


Formation of solutions creating like like interactions3
Formation of solutions - creating like-like interactions as

Solid LiCl is added to some water. It dissolves because

A. The Li+ ions are attracted to the

1) oxygen atom(-) of water

2) hydrogen atom(+) of water

B. The Cl- ions are attracted to the

1) oxygen atom(-) of water

2) hydrogen atom(+) of water

Solid LiCl is added to some water. It dissolves because

A. The Li+ ions are attracted to the

1) oxygen atom(-) of water

B. The Cl- ions are attracted to the

2) hydrogen atom(+) of water


Solubility
Solubility as

The maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a specific amount of solvent usually 100 g.

g of solute

100 g water


Saturated and unsaturated
Saturated and Unsaturated as

  • A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve.

    Undissolved solute remains.

  • An unsaturated solution does not contain all the solute that could dissolve


Learning check
Learning Check as

At 40C, the solubility of KBr is 80 g/100 g H2O. Indicate if the following solutions are

(1) saturated or (2) unsaturated

A. ___60 g KBr in 100 g of water at 40C

B. ___200 g KBr in 200 g of water at 40C

C. ___25g KBr in 50 g of water at 40C


Solution
Solution as

At 40C, the solubility of KBr is 80 g/100 g H2O. Indicate if the following solutions are

(1) saturated or (2) unsaturated

A. 2 Less than 80 g/100 g H2O

B. 1 Same as 100 g KBr in 100 g of water

at 40C, which is greater than its solubility

C. 2 Same as 60 g KBr in 100 g of water,

which is less than its solubility


Temperature and solubility of solids
Temperature and Solubility of Solids as

Temperature Solubility (g/100 g H2O)

KCl(s) NaNO3(s)

0°27.6 74

20°C34.0 88

50°C42.6 114

100°C57.6 182

The solubility of most solids (decreases or increases ) with an increase in the temperature.


Temperature and solubility of solids1
Temperature and Solubility of Solids as

Temperature Solubility (g/100 g H2O)

KCl(s) NaNO3(s)

0°27.6 74

20°C34.0 88

50°C42.6 114

100°C57.6 182

The solubility of most solids increases with an increase in the temperature.


Temperature and solubility of gases
Temperature and Solubility of Gases as

Temperature Solubility (g/100 g H2O)

CO2(g) O2(g)

0°C 0.34 0.0070

20°C0.17 0.0043

50°C0.076 0.0026

The solubility of gases (decreases or increases) with an increase in temperature.


Temperature and solubility of gases1
Temperature and Solubility of Gases as

Temperature Solubility (g/100 g H2O)

CO2(g) O2(g)

0°C0.34 0.0070

20°C0.17 0.0043

50°C0.076 0.0026

The solubility of gases decreases with an increase in temperature.


Learning check1
Learning Check as

A. Why would a bottle of carbonated drink possibly burst (explode) when it is left out in the hot sun ?

B.Why would fish die in water that gets too warm?


Solution1
Solution as

A. Gas in the bottle builds up as the gas becomes less soluble in water at high temperatures, which may cause the bottle to explode.

B. Because O2 gas is less soluble in warm water, the fish may not obtain the needed amount of O2 for their survival.


Soluble and insoluble salts
Soluble and Insoluble Salts as

A soluble salt is an ionic compound that dissolves in water.

An insoluble salt is an ionic compound that does not dissolve in water


Solubility rules
Solubility Rules as

1. A salt is solublein water if it contains any one of the following ions:

NH4+ Li+ Na+ K+ or NO3-

Examples:

soluble salts

LiCl Na2SO4 KBr Ca(NO3)2


Cl salts
Cl as- Salts

2. Salts with Cl- are soluble, but not if the

positive ion is Ag+, Pb2+, or Hg22+.

Examples:

soluble not soluble(will not dissolve)

MgCl2 AgCl

PbCl2


So 4 2 salts
SO as42- Salts

3. Salts with SO42- are soluble, but not if the positive ion is Ba2+,Pb2+, Hg2+ or Ca2+.

Examples:

soluble not soluble

MgSO4 BaSO4

PbSO4


Other salts
Other Salts as

4. Most salts containing CO32-, PO43-, S2- and OH- are not soluble.

Examples:

soluble not soluble

Na2CO3 CaCO3

K2S CuS


Learning check2
Learning Check as

Indicate if each salt is (1)soluble or (2)not soluble:

A. ______ Na2SO4

B. ______ MgCO3

C. ______ PbCl2

D. ______ MgCl2


Solution2
Solution as

Indicate if each salt is (1) soluble or (2) not soluble:

A._1_ Na2SO4

B. _2_ MgCO3

C. _2_ PbCl2

D. _1_ MgCl2


Molarity m
Molarity (M) as

A concentration that expresses the

moles of solute in 1 L of solution

Molarity (M) = moles of solute

1 liter solution


Units of molarity
Units of Molarity as

2.0 M HCl = 2.0 moles HCl

1 L HCl solution

6.0 M HCl = 6.0 moles HCl

1 L HCl solution


Molarity calculation
Molarity Calculation as

NaOH is used to open stopped sinks, to treat

cellulose in the making of nylon, and to

remove potato peels commercially.

If 4.0 g NaOH are used to make 500. mL of NaOH solution, what is the molarity (M) of the solution?


Calculating molarity
Calculating Molarity as

1) 4.0 g NaOH x 1 mole NaOH = 0.10 mole NaOH

40.0 g NaOH

2) 500. mL x 1 L _ = 0.500 L

1000 mL

3. 0.10 mole NaOH = 0.20 mole NaOH

0.500 L 1 L

= 0.20 M NaOH


Learning check3
Learning Check as

A KOH solution with a volume of 400 mL contains 2 mole KOH. What is the molarity of the solution?

1) 8 M

2) 5 M

3) 2 M

Drano


Solutions
Solutions as

A KOH solution with a volume of 400 mL contains 2 moles of KOH. What is the molarity of the solution?

2) 5 M

M = 2 mole KOH = 5 M

0.4 L

Drano


Learning check4
Learning Check as

A glucose solution with a volume of 2.0 L contains 72 g glucose (C6H12O6). If glucose has a molar mass of 180. g/mole, what is the molarity of the glucose solution?

1) 0.20 M

2) 5.0 M

3) 36 M


Solution3
Solution as

A glucose solution with a volume of 2.0 L contains 72 g glucose (C6H12O6). If glucose has a molar mass of 180. g/mole, what is the molarity of the glucose solution?

1) 72 g x 1 mole x 1 = 0.20 M

180. g 2.0 L


Molarity conversion factors
Molarity Conversion Factors as

A solution is a 3.0 M NaOH.. Write the molarity in the form of conversion factors.

3.0 moles NaOHand 1 L NaOH soln

1 L NaOH soln 3.0 moles NaOH


Learning check5
Learning Check as

Stomach acid is a 0.10 M HCl solution. How many moles of HCl are in 1500 mL of stomach acid solution?

1) 15 moles HCl

2) 1.5 moles HCl

3) 0.15 moles HCl


Solution4
Solution as

3) 1500 mL x 1 L = 1.5 L

1000 mL

1.5 L x 0.10 mole HCl = 0.15 mole HCl

1 L

(Molarity factor)


Learning check6
Learning Check as

How many grams of KCl are present in 2.5 L of 0.50 M KCl?

1) 1.3 g

2) 5.0 g

3) 93 g


Solution m4
Solution M4 as

3)

2.5 L x 0.50 mole x 74.6 g KCl = 93 g KCl

1 L 1 mole KCl


Learning check7
Learning Check as

How many milliliters of stomach acid, which is 0.10 M HCl, contain 0.15 mole HCl?

1) 150 mL

2) 1500 mL

3) 5000 mL


Solution5
Solution as

2)0.15 mole HCl x 1 L soln x 1000 mL

0.10 mole HCl 1 L

(Molarity inverted)

= 1500 mL HCl


Learning check8
Learning Check as

How many grams of NaOH are required to prepare 400. mL of 3.0 M NaOH solution?

1) 12 g

2) 48 g

3) 300 g


Solution6
Solution as

2) 400. mL x 1 L = 0.400 L

1000 mL

0.400 L x 3.0 mole NaOH x 40.0 g NaOH 1 L 1 mole NaOH (molar mass)

= 48 g NaOH




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