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AP World History Chapter 14. The Last Nomadic Challenge: From Chinggis Khan to Timur. Mongol Culture. Nomadic pastoralists Goats, sheep Tribe Divided into clans Temporary confederations Leaders elected. Khan. Kabul Khan 1100s, defeats Qin forces Grandson, Temujin

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Ap world history chapter 14

AP World HistoryChapter 14

The Last Nomadic Challenge:

From Chinggis Khan to Timur


Mongol culture
Mongol Culture

  • Nomadic pastoralists

    • Goats, sheep

  • Tribe

    • Divided into clans

    • Temporary confederations

    • Leaders elected


Khan

  • Kabul Khan

    • 1100s, defeats Qin forces

    • Grandson, Temujin

  • Chinggis Khan 1207, expedition

    • Xi-Xia, Tangut king defeated

    • Kara Khitai defeated

    • Mongolian Unity

    • Khwarazm, Muhammad Shah II defeated

    • Xi-Xia kingdom and Qin Empire destroyed

    • 1227, death of Chinggis Khan

  • Capital at karakorum

    • Shamanistic

    • Tolerated other religions

    • New administration

    • Commerce thrives


Khan

  • Chinggis Khan

    • Born Temujin

    • Develops alliances among Mongols

    • 1206, elected khagan (supreme ruler)

  • 1227, division of empire

    • Three sons, one grandson

    • Ogedei, third son

    • Elected great khan


Building the mongol war machine
Building the Mongol War Machine

  • Mounted warriors

    • Tumens,10,000 troops

    • Messenger force

    • Adopted gunpowder, cannons


Mongol conquests
Mongol Conquests

Mongols first invaded kingdoms in China then turned west to the Islamic world and finally conquered the kingdoms of Russia.

Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan) mobilized the Horde to invade many countries outside of Mongolia.

Mongols were the most formidable nomadic challenge to the stationary civilizations.

Their powerful short bows, fired from horseback, were devastating weapons.

Harsh discipline, enforced through a formal code, brought punishments and rewards for conduct.


China under mongol rule
China Under Mongol Rule

The Mongols conquered the Northern kingdoms of China. (Xi and Xia, completely destroyed over two million people)

The Mongols captured fortified cities those that resisted were either killed or enslaved.


Mongols in europe
Mongols in Europe

Ogodei

The armies of the Golden Horde, swept westward till they reached into Poland and Russia.

The Khan’s defeated the Russians in 1236 CE.

Kingdoms were spared if they paid tribute. Kingdoms that refused were burned to the ground and the soil was turned red with blood.

Ogedei renews attack on China

Kubilai Khan

Grandson of Chinggis Khan

Attacks Song

1271, transformation to Yuan dynasty

Capital at Tatu (Beijing)


Building the mongol war machine1
Building the Mongol War Machine

  • Mounted warriors

    • Tumens,10,000 troops

    • Messenger force

    • Adopted gunpowder, cannons


Mongol positives
Mongol Positives

  • Mongol women retain liberties

    • Chabi, wife of Kubilai, influential

  • Mongol patronage

    • Attracts scholars, artists

  • Religious toleration

    • Buddhists, Nestorians, Latin Christians, Daoists, Muslims

  • Marco Polo

    • Visits courtKubilai

  • China

    • Protects peasant lands

    • Famine relief

    • Tax, labor burden lessened


The brief ride of timur
The Brief Ride of Timur

  • Timur-i Lang (Tamerlane)

  • Turkish

  • Base at Samarkand

  • 1405, death

    • Empire dissolves

    • End of steppe nomad conquests


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