gasoline and  alternative fuels icaia jim halderman dayton, ohio

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Topics to be Discussed. Makeup and terminology of vehicle fuelsGasoline propertiesTypes of alcoholsConcerns about alcohol enhanced fuelsSynthetic fuels and blendsHow to test fuel for RVP and AlcoholC.A.F.E. rating and E85Service related issues. The Need for Alternative Fuels. Peak Oil- the world's production of oil is close to its peakReduce imported oil-now 70%Global warming concerns and the need to reduce C02 emissions which is currently about one pound per mile for every vehicle19

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1. Gasoline and Alternative FuelsICAIAJim HaldermanDayton, Ohio

3. The Need for Alternative Fuels Peak Oil- the world’s production of oil is close to its peak Reduce imported oil-now 70% Global warming concerns and the need to reduce C02 emissions which is currently about one pound per mile for every vehicle

4. Imported Oil VS. Consumption

5. Will Gasoline Cost Increase ?

6. Types of Alternative Fuels The U.S Department of Energy ( recognizes eight types of alternative fuels: Ethanol Natural gas Propane Hydrogen Biodiesel Electricity Methanol P-series fuels

7. Gasoline Gasoline consists of up to 500 hydrocarbons with between 3 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule Huh?

8. Fuel Related Terms Methane-one carbon atom; four hydrogen atoms (CH4) Natural gas is mostly methane

9. Natural Gas=Mostly Methane

10. What does NMHC Mean? NMHC means “non-methane hydrocarbons” Cows produce methane gas (two places) If emission level standards included methane, then areas with cows may fail Decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills NMHC measures all hydrocarbons EXCEPT methane which is considered to be a potent greenhouse gas (23 times that of CO2) (Does not affect the ozone layer because it does react with NOx)

11. Ethane (C2H6)

12. What’s this to do about Alcohol? If one of the “Hs” is replaced with an hydroxyl group (-OH) (adding an atom of oxygen to the molecule) this changes methane into methanol and ethane into ethanol (delete the “e” and add “ol” at the end Adding the oxygen atom to the molecule is all it takes to create an alcohol The oxygen in the fuel itself is called an “oxygenated” fuel

13. The Oxygen will not Escape Oxygenated fuel is not like soft drinks where the CO2 can bubble out Carbonated water, also known as soda water, sparkling water, fizzy water, club soda, or seltzer water, is plain water into which carbon dioxide gas has been dissolved

14. Shelf Life “Shelf life” means that length of time a product can be stored (on a shelf) and still have “like new” performance Oxygenated fuel, like any fuel, has a shelf life of about 90 days according to industry experts

15. Other Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons come in many different forms The number of carbons determines its name Replace the four hydrogen atoms from methane and replace with two chlorines and two fluorines The result: dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12)

16. Glycols The same with glycols Add another OH to the ethanol and you get ethylene glycol (antifreeze) This is why antifreeze can burn Antifreeze can be ignited and will burn

17. Methanol (CH3OH) The “bad” alcohol Made from natural gas or wood Called wood alcohol Very corrosive Must be used with another alcohol called a co-solvent if used in an engine Also called methyl alcohol or methyl hydrate

18. MethanolContains 50% oxygen by weight and is very corrosive

19. M85 Flex Fuel Vehicles M85 flex-fuel vehicles are a gasoline vehicle that can use M85 It takes 1.7 gallons of M85 to get the same driving range as one gallon of gasoline, but price of a gallon of gasoline is about 1.7 times the price of a gallon of M85, so it balances out

20. Ethanol (C2H5OH) The “good” alcohol Is not as corrosive as methanol Made from corn or bio-mass (called bioethanol) Called “grain alcohol” Also called ethyl alcohol Used as an additive to gasoline Used to be called “gasohol”

21. Propane (C3H8)

22. Isopropanol (C3H8O) Isopropanol is sometimes sold as "Isopropyl Rubbing Alcohol, 70% (or 90%)" Isopropyl alcohol is also commonly used as a cleaner and solvent in industry

23. Isopropyl Alcohol Isopropanol is a major ingredient in "dry-gas" fuel additive Once soluble, the water does not pose the same risk as insoluble water as it will no longer accumulate in the supply lines and freeze

24. Butane (C4H10)

25. Butanol Can be used as a fuel to replace gasoline Not currently in production First plant designed to produce automotive fuel is in England Can be used 85% with gasoline(15%) without any changes Almost the same BTU output

26. Pentane (C5H12)

27. Hexane (C6H14)

28. Heptane (C7H16)

29. Octane (C8H18)


31. Olefins (Causes Valve Deposits)

32. Naphthalene (Moth Balls)

33. Toluene (used as an octane improver)

34. Benzene (Cancer causing)(Some say that any chemical ending in “ene” can cause cancer)“Hi-Test” gas used to be called “benzene”

35. Gasoline is a blend of hydrocarbons The heavier molecules provide heat energy and therefore fuel economy The lighter hydrocarbons are used to provide volatility to allow the engine to start in cold weather Therefore gasoline is blended for each season.

36. Gasoline Production

37. Specific Gravity of Gasoline Gasoline has a specific gravity that ranges from 0.730 to 0.760 Water has a specify gravity of 1.000 Gasoline is less dense than water Water will sink to the bottom of a gas tank

38. Alcohol Specific Gravity Methanol is 0.792 Ethanol is 0.815 E85 ranges from 0.700 to 0.770 Therefore it would be hard to detect if a customer were using E85 by testing the specific gravity.

39. Octane Rating Octane rating is a measure of the fuel’s ability to resist detonation (ping or spark knock) Gasoline is most commonly rated based on the ANTIKNOCK INDEX (AKI), a measure of octane rating

40. Octane Ratings (Continued) The AKI of a motor fuel is the average of the: Research Octane Number (RON) Motor Octane Number (MON) (R+M)/2

41. Octane Ratings (continued) The RON of a fuel is TYPICALLY 8 to 10 numbers higher than the MON. For instance, an 87 octane gasoline typically has a MON of 82 and a RON of 92. 82 + 92 = 174 divided by 2= 87

42. R+M/2 Ratings Regular= 87 Mid-grade (Plus) = 89 Premium + 91+

43. High Altitude Ratings(Why Lower?) (Lower Air Density)

45. E85 Octane Rating

46. U.S. Gasoline Requirements

47. Distillation Curve Measures the percentage of fuel that has evaporated at various temperatures More accurate method because it tracks evaporation at several temperatures instead of just one temperature

48. Distillation Curve

49. Driveability Index (DI) To predict cold-start and warm-up driveability, a driveability index (DI) has been developed using the temperatures for the evaporated percentages of 10 percent (T10), 50 percent (T50) and 90 percent (T90): DI = 1.5(T10) + 3.0(T50) + (T90) The DI varies with gasoline grade and season; the normal range in the U.S. is 850°F to 1300°F Lower values of DI generally result in better cold-start and warm-up performance, but once good driveability is achieved, there is no benefit to further lowering the DI.

50. Gasoline Standards

51. Country wide distribution

52. Fungible Fungible means “can be interchanged” This means that gasoline that meets standards (like electricity) is shipped through pipelines to others The additive packages are added at the distributors In other words, the basic product is the same no matter where it is purchased

53. Ethanol Absorbs water

54. E85 can not go in pipelines E85 absorbs moisture and therefore can become contaminated if transported through a pipeline designed for gasoline Therefore all ethanol and E85 has to be transported by tanker truck This limits the area where E85 is near ethanol plants

55. Case Study Old Ford Turbo Coupe Problem with poor running after cylinder head replacement The vehicle had summer grade fuel and now it is winter Can check for alcohol and comtamination

56. Checked Fuel for Contamination

57. Phase Separation

58. Tell Customers? Because alcohol absorbs water and it then separates at the bottom, it is best to warn customers that running with the tank below ¼ tank could cause driveability problems and possible P0300 DTCs Lower fuel level = hotter temperature for the fuel pump also

59. Gasoline Test #1 A service technician can test gasoline for alcohol: Check for alcohol content - should be less than 10% unless E85 is being used E10 may test as being higher than 10% which can lead to driveability problems

60. Alcohol Content Test

61. What is E70? E85 may test as having less than 85% alcohol Ethanol is “denatured” using about 3% gasoline so E85 could test as having only about 82% alcohol In cold climates, the percentage drops to 70% to allow for easier starting in cold weather (October 1 until April 1)

62. Fuel Composition Tester A fuel composition tester (SPX Kent-Moore J 44175) is the tool recommended to use to test the alcohol content of gasoline.

63. Step One This battery-powered tester uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs), meter lead terminals and two small openings for the fuel sample

64. Step Two The first step is to verify the proper operation of the tester by measuring the air frequency by selecting AC hertz on the meter The air frequency should be between 35 Hz and 48 Hz.

65. Step Three After verifying that the tester is capable of correctly reading the air frequency, gasoline is poured into the testing cell of the tool.

66. Step Four Record the AC frequency as shown on the meter and subtract 50 from the reading. (60.50-50.00 = 10.5) This number (10.5) is the percentage of alcohol in the gasoline sample

67. Step Five Adding additional amounts of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) increases the frequency reading

68. Fuel Volatility vs. BTUs There seems to be a lot of confusion on this subject Fuel Volatility simply is “How easily a liquid changes to a vapor” The BTU measurement is the energy content of the fuel

69. Gasoline RVP Gasoline vapor pressure measured at exactly 100 degrees F Called Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) Easily checked by the technician Higher in the winter so the engine will start Lower in the summer to avoid evaporative losses and prevents vapor lock

70. Gasoline Test #2 A service technician can test the RVP of the gasoline: Warm water (or coffee) in coffee cup to 100 degrees F Place cold sample of gasoline into tester and place into the warm water Shake and observe pressure. Should not exceed 10.5 psi

71. Testing for RVP

72. Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) (vapor pressure measured at exactly 100 degrees F)

73. Top Tier Gasoline This standard was developed by GM, BMW, Honda and Toyota Exceeds the standards set by the World Wide Fuel Charter (WWFC) Chevron Texaco and Conoco Phillps gasoline meets these standards

74. Ford Recommends BPMeets WWFC standards but not Top Tier

75. BTU is a BTU Regardless of the energy source, it still requires a certain amount of heat energy (BTUs) to propel a vehicle One British Thermal Unit (BTU) is the amount of heat needed to raise one pound of water one degree F

76. BTUs in Gasoline and E85 1 U.S. Gallon of gasoline contains 114,132 BTU E85 is then a blend of denatured ethanol and gasoline, therefore: Denatured ethanol @ 77,815 BTU/gal x 85% = 66,143 Gasoline @114,132 BTU/gal x 15% = 17,120

77. E85 cost vs. Fuel Economy The cost of E85 is about 10% to 20% less than gasoline (E10) The fuel economy is about 20% to 30% less The payback is not there in most cases It costs more to use E85 However drivers feel they are doing something for the country

78. E85 and C.A.F.E rating Corporate average fuel economy (C.A.F.E) is based on the amount of gasoline used If a vehicle is able to operate on E85, the EPA assumes that it will be operating on E85 and therefore will rate the fuel economy based on the amount of gasoline (15%) it would use This helps vehicle manufacturers meet the C.A.F.E standards

79. Fuel Economy using E85 A typical Chevrolet Tahoe with a 5.3 liter V-8 Gasoline EPA rating is 15 city; 20 highway E85 EPA rating is 11 city; 15 highway

80. Flex Fueled Vehicles Because the PERFECT air/fuel ratio known as STOICHIOMETRY for gasoline is 14.7 to 1 Whereas the STOICHIOMETRY of E85 is 9.765 to 1

81. Ethanol Carbon Cycle

82. World Wide Ethanol Production

83. Ethanol Production

84. Where to get E85?

85. Grain Ethanol-Energy Balance The energy needed to produce ethanol is about 30% less than the amount of energy released when it is burned This amount takes in the planting, transportation and other costs Some say it is about 65% whereas others say close to 100% About 300 gallons of ethanol per acre of corn

86. How Ethanol is Made from Corn

87. Cellulose Ethanol Uses non-food portion of renewable feed stocks (plant fiber) such as corn stalks and other bio-mass to create ethanol Switch grass yields about 1,000 gallons of ethanol per acre More energy efficient than using corn Does not raise the price of the corn

88. Cellulose Ethanol

89. How Bioethanol is Made from Biomass

90. Imported Ethanol Chevron imports about 30% of the ethanol used to make their E85 The ethanol is being imported from Brazil In Brazil, ethanol is made from sugar cane and is a low cost to produce

91. Environmentalists Love Ethanol(Reduces greenhouse gases and is renewable)

92. PLUS sides of Ethanol Fuel Increases Octane rating by 2.5 to 3.0 numbers. Increases Volatility slightly Ethanol Fuel cleans the entire fuel system ( This will also make my Downside list ) Will run in all vehicles without any engine modifications ( at 10% and under ) Lowers our dependency on foreign crude oil

93. CO2 Emissions The major greenhouse gas emitted from vehicles is carbon dioxide(CO2) The average vehicle emits one pound of CO2 per mile of travel (based on 20 miles per gallon fuel economy or 20 pounds for every gallon of gasoline burned)

94. CO2 and Fuel Economy CO2 is related directly to fuel economy Some States such as California are trying to regulate CO2 emissions and therefore fuel economy The Supreme Court ruled that the EPA can regulate CO2

95. European CO2 Limits The European Union target is a limit of 130 grams per kilometer by 2012 The Toyota Prius emits 104 grams per km If higher than 225 g/km then there will be fine of from about $400 to $4,000 per year

96. EPA Regulates CO2 "It is a pretty historic effort to set the first regulatory program for greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act," Margo Oge, director of the EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality.

97. Downside of Ethanol Fuel Has lower BTU’s (approx. 3.1% at 10% ethanol) than gasoline Water Tolerance changes Swelling of elastomer (rubber & plastic) components, can breakdown some poly sealers

98. What cost Ethanol? According to “Mexican farmers are abandoning the blue agave plant which is distilled to make tequila to plant fields of corn. The switch could create a tequila shortage.” “Germany faces a similar situation as bio-fuel demand is pushing farmers to stop barley manufacture in favor of bio-fuel grains like rapeseed and corn”

99. Cost of Ethanol? In Ohio, horse farms are finding a shortage of hay because farmers can make more $$$$ growing corn The price of corn is increasing This means that many foods will also increase because corn is used for feed for cattle

100. How to Identify a Flex Fuel Vehicle Look at the emblem on the vehicle

101. VECI Sticker

102. Convert to E85? The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a long-standing prohibition on converting the engine of a standard gas-burning vehicle into one that runs on E85 or other alternative fuels See for information Kits run from $369.99 to $499.99 Involves a jumper harness to the injectors

103. E10 is now the norm As of April 2, 2006 at least 85% of all the gasoline sold in United States has to contain 10% by volume of ethanol Known as E10

104. E10 Ethanol Fuel E10 is gasoline enriched with up to 10 percent ethanol All vehicle manufacturers have approved E10 for use in all makes and models   It is the most common ethanol-enriched fuel available 

105. E85 Ethanol Fuel E85 is made for flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), which are designed to run on any blend of ethanol and unleaded gasoline In the United States alone, nearly 3.5 million of these vehicles can run on E85 right now

106. Classes of E85 Class 1- Pure E85; about 80% to 84% ethanol (Gasoline is used to denature the ethanol) Class 2- Sometimes called E75; about 75% to 79% ethanol. Class 3- Called E70; 70% to 74% ethanol E70 and E75 are used in Spring and Fall to improve cold starting

107. E85 in Flex Fuel Vehicles Only

108. E85 Fuel System E85 ethanol is more corrosive than gasoline, so any fuel system components must be constructed with materials that withstand corrosion Bare magnesium, aluminum or rubber parts cannot be in contact with the alcohol in E85 ethanol fuel

109. E85 Fuel System #2 Ethanol easily absorbs moisture from its surroundings Ethanol can be oxidized into acetic acid, and peroxide which can cause deterioration of some fuel system materials and wear of the copper components in electric fuel pumps In the refinery process, additives can be blended in E85 ethanol fuel to reduce the harmful effects of corrosion

110. E85 Fuel System #3 Although fuel rails on certain GM Flex Fuel engines in previous model years were made of plastic, stainless steel is now (2007+) the only material used for fuel rails on all engine applications

111. E85 Fuel System #4 The fuel injectors for use in engines running on E85 ethanol have a Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) corrosion resistant finish The O-rings for the fuel injectors in GM Flex Fuel engines are more resistant to alcohol

112. E85 Fuel System #5 The fuel pumps for E85 vehicles use an armature design with a graphite composition commutator that is more resistant to the corrosive action of alcohols Many conventional pumps now use the new improved armature.

113. GM Virtual Flex Fuel Sensor Starting in 2005, GM vehicles have used a Virtual Flex Fuel Sensor (VFFS) method to determine the ethanol content of fuel in the tank of a Flex Fuel vehicle

114. Reset LTFT Because the virtual fuel sensor uses the oxygen sensor to detect alcohol content, if the long term fuel trim is reset, the PCM will “assume” that either 100% gasoline or E10 is in the tank and make all future adjustments based on this Be sure to ask the customer if E85 has been used

115. Propane

116. Make up of LPG (propane)

117. Propane Numbers 91,000 BTUs per gallon 104 octane Can be used indoors because little CO is produced Large storage tank required Refueling is not convenient

118. Energy Density Comparisons

119. Propane Storage

120. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

121. CNG Numbers 130 Octane 122 Cubic feet of CNG equals one gallon of gasoline 10% to 20% reduction in power when using CNG compared to gasoline

122. CNG pressures Three standard pressures are commonly used in CNG systems: 1. P24…….2400 PSI 2. P30…….3000 PSI 3. P36……..3600 PSI Filling the tank to the highest pressure possible results in more fuel and allows for a greater range

123. Honda CNG injectors

124. Where to get CNG?

125. Fill up at Home

126. Alternate Fuel Comparison Chart

127. Synthetic Fuel The Fischer-Tropsch method of creating liquid fuel from coal, natural gas and other fossil fuels was invented in Germany in the 1920s. The Fischer-Tropsch methods can be used to create liquid fuel from natural gas (gas-to liquid (GTL)) or create Fischer-Tropsch Diesel (FTD)

128. Synthetic Fuel

129. P-SERIES FUELS P-series alternative fuel is patented by Princeton University and is a non-petroleum-based fuel suitable for use in flexible fuel vehicles (FFV). P-series fuels are blends of the following: Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) Methyltetrahydrofuron, abbreviated MTHF Natural gas liquids, such as pentanes Butane

130. Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) ULSD is now the standard(15 ppm) Allows the use of aftertreatment devices on 2007+ diesels The old low sulfur diesel had 500 ppm sulfur.

131. Biodiesel Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases. Biodiesel is safe, biodegradable, and reduces serious air pollutants such as particulates (PM), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons.

132. Biodiesel Biodiesel is defined as mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats which conform to ASTM D6751 specifications for use in diesel engines Biodiesel refers to the pure fuel before blending with diesel fuel

133. How Biodiesel is Made

134. Biodiesel Made from renewable resources such as straight vegetable oil (SVO), animal fats or recycled restaurant greases Designated BXX with the “XX” representing the percentage of biodiesel in the blend Most vehicle manufacturers allow the use of B5 (5%) Dodge allows B20 only if an additional fuel filter kit is installed

135. BioDiesel

136. Is this a Good Sign?

137. Electric Vehicles(Who killed them?)

138. Two Types of Chargers

139. Tri-Fuel Vehicle(Plug-in hybrid; gas; ethanol or CNG)

140. Hydrogen the Answer?(BMW dual-fuel 7-Series)

141. No Carbon with Hydrogen Using a hydrocarbon fuel, the first thing that is burned is the hydrogen and this leaves the carbon No CO2 is created when hydrogen is burned

142. Hydrogen is not a fuel Hydrogen must be extracted to be used Hydrogen is an energy carrier It requires energy to extract and store hydrogen Can be made from natural gas (methane) Electrolysis (water into oxygen and hydrogen)

143. Hydrogen from Solar or Wind

144. Three challenges, one answer Hydrogen answers all three challenges. Hydrogen answers all three challenges.

145. Governor Schwarzenegger’s Vision 1 Hydrogen station every 20 milesGovernor Schwarzenegger’s Vision 1 Hydrogen station every 20 miles

146. 16 stations in operation. 15 more planned16 stations in operation. 15 more planned

147. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

148. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells

149. Why Fuel Cells for Vehicles?

150. Is Hydrogen Safe? Every fuel should be treated with respect; H2 is no different Hydrogen has high buoyancy and dissipates easily in air, especially outdoors Burning hydrogen rises; unlike gasoline, which spreads laterally

151. Hydrogen Refueling

152. Hydrogen is the Future Hydrogen fuel cells emit just water Toyota fuel cell vehicle purges water from the system when it shuts down This prevents the trapped water from freezing in cold weather

153. Driving the Future

154. Percentage in the Future?

155. Possible Recommendations(Twice a year) Techron (polyether amine) is a dispersant. Gets between carbon particles and prevents them from clinging together. Nothing actually dissolves carbon. Recommended by GM, BMW and Chrysler

156. Recommendations (continued) Do not store any fuel longer than 90 days Keep fuel tank above ¼ if possible Do not overfill the tank or raw fuel will be drawn into the engine through the purge valve Purchase fuel from a busy station Use regular grade for most vehicles

157. Summary Do you think the price of fuel will increase in the future? Gasoline is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons Gasoline has many standards Gasoline can be checked by a technician for RVP and alcohol content Alternative fuels all have advantages and disadvantages

158. Contact and Resource Information Jim Halderman ( For a copy of this presentation go to

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