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First question What is the Internet? What is the Internet? A global network of networks What is the Internet? A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches) What is the Internet?

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First question

What is the Internet?


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What is the Internet?

  • A global network of networks


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What is the Internet?

  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)


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What is the Internet?

  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)


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What is the Internet?

  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)

  • The computers connected to each network


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What is the Internet?

  • A global network of networks, including their wires, fibers, and routers (switches)

  • The computers connected to each network

  • A book of “IP” addresses that tells each computer where all the others are


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 1

  • IP = Internet Protocol – routes the packets

  • TCP = Transmission Control Protocol arrives in reliable order

    TCP/IP describes the rules for transmitting small packets of bits (0s and 1s) from one computer to another.


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 2

Each computer on the Internet is uniquely identified so that it can be addressed.


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 2

Each computer on the Internet is uniquely identified so that it can be addressed.

It may have:

  • a name – for example, the Web server for this university is www.albany.edu…


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 2

Each computer on the Internet is uniquely identified so that it can be addressed.

It may have:

  • a name – for example, www.albany.edu

    But it must have:

  • an IP address – 169.226.1.110


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 3

The translation or resolution of the name to the address is done by a “domain name server” (DNS)…


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 3

The translation or resolution of the name to the address is done by a “domain name server” (DNS), which is like the white pages of the Internet, translating names to IP addresses.


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 3

The translation or resolution of the name to the address is done by a “domain name server” (DNS), the white pages of the Internet.

There are thousands of DNSs around the world…


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 3

The translation or resolution of the name to the address is done by a “domain name server” (DNS), the white pages of the Internet.

There are thousands of DNSs around the world, and they all know that:

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

and vice versa.


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 4

Notice that the IP address is hierarchical, like a phone number or street address :

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 4

Notice that the IP address is hierarchical, like a phone number or street address :

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

518-442-3300…


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 4

Notice that the IP address is hierarchical, like a phone number or street address:

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

518-442-3300, or 415-442-3300, x. 118


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 4

Notice that the IP address is hierarchical, like a phone number or street address:

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

518-442-3300, or 415-442-3300, x. 118

But notice that the domain name is a different kind of hierarchy…


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Techno-Alphabet Soup, pt 4

Notice that the IP address is hierarchical, like a phone number or street address:

169.226.1.110 = www.albany.edu

The domain name has 2 parts – the host and top level domain (TLD).

albany = host (really University at Albany)

.edu = TLD (top level domain)= education


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Domain categories

Original top level domain categories in the U.S.:

  • .com – businesses

  • .edu – educational institutions

  • .gov – government agencies

  • .mil – military units

  • .net – networks

  • .org – non-profit organizations


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Other domains

New Top-Level Domains:

  • .aero, .biz, .info, .name, .pro, etc.


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Other domains

New Top-Level Domains:

  • .aero, .biz, .info, .name, .pro, etc.

    Other government sites within U.S.:

  • state.ny.us


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Other domains

New Top-Level Domains:

  • .aero, .biz, .info, .name, .pro, etc.

    Other government sites within U.S.:

  • state.ny.us

    Country codes:

  • .at, .au, .ca, .de, .fr, .uk, etc.


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Other domains

New Top-Level Domains:

  • .aero, .biz, .info, .name, .pro, etc.

    Other government sites within U.S.:

  • state.ny.us

    Country codes:

  • .at, .au, .ca, .de, .fr, .uk, etc.


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The authority for domains…

http://www.icann.org/

ICANN - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

Newest : .mail – a site for anti-spam community

.kid -?


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The authority for domains…

  • ICANN – Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

    To the extent anyone is in charge, it’s ICANN.


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What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:


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What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

  • An address (IP number)


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What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:


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What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

  • An address (IP number)

  • An addressee, e.g., [email protected]

  • Something to indicate order or sequence


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What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

  • An address (IP number)

  • An addressee, e.g., someon[email protected]

  • Something to indicate order or sequence

  • A portion of the message (Why not all?…)


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What’s in the packets…

Here are the minimum things each needs:

  • An address (IP number)

  • An addressee, e.g., [email protected]

  • Something to indicate order or sequence

  • A portion of the message (Why not all?…)

    How would that work here?…


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Delivering the message…

How would that work here in LC 25?…

  • We need an address: 25.2.9.7


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Delivering the message…

How would that work here in LC 25?…

  • We need an address: 25.2.9.7

    And right away we’re stuck. What does this mean? How do we find out?…


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Delivering the message…

How would that work here in LC 25?…

  • We need an address: 25.2.9.7

    And right away we’re stuck. What does this mean? How do we find out?…

  • We need a DNS server, which we’ll use in reverse… going from “number” to “name”


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The LC “DNS” server…

Our hypothetical LC addresses, by analogy with IP addresses, are quadruples:

LC (room) # . side of room . row # . seat #

where left/right side (from front) is 1/2, row is from the front, and seat is from the aisle.


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The LC “DNS” server…

Our hypothetical LC addresses, by analogy with IP addresses, are quadruples:

LC (room) # . side of room . row # . seat #

where left/right side (from front) is 1/2, row is from the front, and seat is from the aisle.

So where is 25.2.9.7?…


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Splenda works

As sugar

switching

Pieces of the message…


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Splenda works

As well

As sugar

For packet

switching

Pieces of the message…


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Next question…

When was the Internet?


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When was the Internet?

  • 1961 – Len Kleinrock (then at MIT, now at UCLA) developed theory of “packet switching,” describing how data could behave on a highway where collisions were not only allowed but expected!!


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When was the Internet?

  • 1961 – Len Kleinrock (then at MIT, now at UCLA) developed theory of “packet switching,” describing how data could behave on a highway where collisions were not only allowed but expected!!

  • 1964 – Paul Baran (RAND Corp.) used packet theory to develop idea of a network that could survive major outages….


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When was the Internet?

  • 1965 – Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in the Pentagon funded the first experimental connection between a computer at MIT and one in California… over a 1200 bps phone line.


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When was the Internet?

  • 1966 – Robert Taylor, an ARPA funding manager, got fed up. He proposed networking computers around the country… mainframes… four of them. His boss said “OK” and gave him $1M after a 20-minute conversation…. There was only one small problem: no one knew how to do this!


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When was the Internet?

  • 1966-69 – ARPA awarded a contract to Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN), an architectural consulting firm in Boston to design and build “ARPANET,” the direct ancestor of today’s Internet, with a starting configuration of four nodes!


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When was the Internet?

  • 8/30/69UCLA

  • 10/1/69 SRI

  • 10/29/69 1st message, UCLA to SRI

  • 11/1/69 UCSB

  • 12/?/69 University of Utah… ski season…


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When was the Internet?

  • By 1971, there were 23 “hosts” (computers) at 15 “nodes” in CA, UT, IL, MI, PA, & MA


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When was the Internet?

  • 1972 – Ray Tomlinson chooses “@” as connector for userid and address


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When was the Internet?

  • 1972 – Ray Tomlinson chooses “@” as connector for userid and address

  • 1973 – 75% of all ARPANET traffic is email


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When was the Internet?

  • 1972 – Ray Tomlinson chooses “@” as connector for userid and address

  • 1973 – 75% of all ARPANET traffic is email

  • 1974 – BBN creates Telenet, first public network


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When was the Internet?

  • 1972 – Ray Tomlinson chooses “@” as connector for userid and address

  • 1973 – 75% of all ARPANET traffic is email

  • 1974 – BBN creates Telenet, first public network

  • 1975 – first mailing list, MsgGroup, forerunner of listservs


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When was the Internet?

  • Late 1970s – other networks built, such as Tymnet and THEORYNET (academic)


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When was the Internet?

  • Late 1970s – other networks built, such as Tymnet and THEORYNET (academic)

  • 4/12/79 – Kevin MacKenzie invents the “emoticon” :-)


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When was the Internet?

  • Late 1970s – other networks built, such as Tymnet and THEORYNET (academic)

  • 4/12/79 – Kevin MacKenzie invents the “emoticon” :-)

  • 10/27/80 – first accidental virus shuts down ARPANET


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When was the Internet?

  • Late 1970s – other networks built, such as Tymnet and THEORYNET (academic)

  • 4/12/79 – Kevin MacKenzie invents the “emoticon” :-)

  • 10/27/80 – first accidental virus shuts down ARPANET

  • 1984 – number of hosts breaks 1000, William Gibson coins “cyberspace”


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When was the Internet?

  • 1986 – National Science Foundation creates NSFNET and regional networks including NYSERNET, running at 56,000 bps


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When was the Internet?

  • 1986 – National Science Foundation creates NSFNET and regional networks including NYSERNET, running at 56,000 bps

  • 1987 – number of hosts breaks 10,000


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When was the Internet?

  • 1986 – National Science Foundation creates NSFNET and regional networks including NYSERNET, running at 56,000 bps

  • 1987 – number of hosts breaks 10,000

  • 1988 – NSFNET upgraded to 1,500,000 bps


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When was the Internet?

  • 1986 – National Science Foundation creates NSFNET and regional networks including NYSERNET, running at 56,000 bps

  • 1987 – number of hosts breaks 10,000

  • 1988 – NSFNET upgraded to 1,500,000 bps

  • 1989 – number of hosts breaks 100,000


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When was the Internet?

  • 1986 – National Science Foundation creates NSFNET and regional networks including NYSERNET, running at 56,000 bps

  • 1987 – number of hosts breaks 10,000

  • 1988 – NSFNET upgraded to 1,500,000 bps

  • 1989 – number of hosts breaks 100,000

  • 1992 – number of hosts breaks 1,000,000



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Where was the Internet?

  • 1973 – universities in UK and Norway

  • 1982 – Netherlands-Denmark-Sweden-UK

  • 1983 – Germany-Korea

  • 1984 – Japan, Soviet Union

  • 1985 – Canada

  • (1986 – NSFNET created in U.S.)

  • 1988-90 – CA, DK, FI, FR, IS, NO, SE; AU, DE, IL, IT, JP, MX, NL, NZ, UK; AR, AT, BE, BR, CL, GR, IN, IE, KR, ES, CH connect to NSFNET


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When was the Internet?

  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down


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When was the Internet?

  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down

  • 1991 – NSFNET upgraded to 45,000,000 bps


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When was the Internet?

  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down

  • 1991 – NSFNET upgraded to 45,000,000 bps

  • 1991 – Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web, CERN releases software


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When was the Internet?

  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down

  • 1991 – NSFNET upgraded to 45,000,000 bps

  • 1991 – Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web, CERN releases software

  • 1993 – Marc Andreesen at U. of IL invents browser


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When was the Internet?

  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down

  • 1991 – NSFNET upgraded to 45,000,000 bps

  • 1991 – Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web, CERN releases software

  • 1993 – Marc Andresen at U. of IL invents browser

  • 1994 – Arizona law firm sends first “spam,” first Pizza Hut takes orders online


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When was the Internet?

  • 1990 – original ARPANET shut down

  • 1991 – NSFNET upgraded to 45,000,000 bps

  • 1991 – Tim Berners-Lee invents World Wide Web, CERN releases software

  • 1993 – Marc Andreesen at U. of IL invents browser

  • 1994 – Arizona law firm sends first “spam,” first Pizza Hut takes orders online

  • 1995 – Internet becomes commercial, AltaVista goes online in December



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