Agriculture and rural indicators in China Xu Zhiquan Rural Survey Organization, National Bureau Statistics of China Agriculture and rural indicators in China Part1. Review on the indicators Part2. Underlying principle of the indicators designed
Rural Survey Organization,
National Bureau Statistics of China
Part2 Underlying principle of the indicators designed2.1 Theory of 3 dimensional rural issues:Basic principle for the indicators designed
Theory of ‘three dimensional rural issues’ referring to issues concerning agriculture, rural area, and farmers. The main contents of the theory are as follows:
Population: 1.276 billion
Cultivated land 1.95 billion mu (15mu=1ha)
---Per capita Cultivated land 1.2 mu.
---The population is increasing year by year and the cultivated land is decreasing year by year.
---Agricultural products supply always is one of the top concerns for the governments
Due to the typical rural-urban dual structure in China. In comparison, rural area is poorer and much more under-civilized.
---Per capita per-day income of rural households is 6.5yuan=0.79$ . Under the UN standard.
---Poverty population is 30 million ( per-day under 2 yuan ).
---Increasing of per capita income is slow down.
Total labors is 500 million estimated.
---Agricultural operation need 150 million,
---TVEs 120 million,
---Floating between rural and urban 80 million,
---Remain labors 150 million.
---For urban residents reached 6860 yuan (2001).
---For rural households was 2366 yuan (2001).
Feature of agriculture and rural indicators:
---Agriculture-related indicator system. The core indicator is grain yield.
---Rural development indicator system. The core indicators is the TVEs and investment and employment .
---Rural household level indicator system. The guiding indicator is income.
Output value of TVEs is a of leading indicators among rural development.
---It close to the small towns
---It depends on and then promotes the improvement of rural infrastructure, culture and education.
---It close to the growth of rural investment
---It close to the employment
3.22 Rural development indicators has function in monitoring urbanization and industrialization of countryside, construction of rural infrastructure and changing of living environment.
The census has played an important role in
--- Income and expenditure growth,
--- Change of production and living standard,
--- Change of employment and
---Poverty status and poverty-reduction progression of rural households.
---Data from the census help to identify who is the poor and how to locate poor households in small area.
---We gradual adjusted the indicator system to meet the requirements of all users.
---In practice, production data affect the purchase-and-sale behavior of related industrial enterprises in a very profound way.
---The price data of livestock directly determine farmer’s animal raising composition.
---The data from census benefits the enterprises of agriculture concerned in small areas.
Agriculture and rural indicators is also an ideal instrument for carrying out monitoring survey on foreign assisted projects
4.4 Coverage of agriculture and rural area.
---The per capita area of cultivated land in China is equivalent to 41% of the global level.
---China only takes one fourth of the world water resource, and the water shortage in some cities
---More emergency is for China to bring more improvement to environment relatedindicators.
---Safe drinking water
The indicators should meet the requirement of market as the follows:
---Micro data of on supply and demand of grain,
---Intermediate cost of planting crops
---Intermediate cost Raising animals
---The market price of agricultural products.
---Agricultural accounting system
---The combination of agricultural and rural to an integrated indicators system resulted in a new problem of inconsistency of the coverage.
---Special attention should be given to this issue whether by current survey or by the new census. Agricultural indicators should cover rural area and cities with agricultural activities, while rural indicators exclude urban area.
(a)The unification of rural indicators
(b)The consistency and comparability of definition, classification, and coverage of the indicators.
(c)Openness, transparency of data dissemination,
(d) The improvement of data availability and usability. All those pose some new requirement on agriculture and rural indicators.
The expansion from agriculture to rural indicators is not the change of agricultural conception, but to better adaptation to the typical feature of rural-urban dual structure, and to better reflect linkage between agriculture, rural area and farmers.
---How can the indicators better adapt to the new features of the 3 dimensional rural issues after the middle of 1990s?
---To deeply study the relationship among indicators and to simplify the indicators to lighten the workload of fieldwork, especially for those underdeveloped areas.
---To further clarify the linkage, especially for indicators classification and data link up, between census and current surveys.