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Learning objects. Describe global patterns of economic development and associate these patterns with different patterns of tourism demand and behaviorAppreciates how emergent countries such as China and South Korea have attempted to manage their outbound and domestic tourism flowsIdentify the forc

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1. Chapter 3

2. Learning objects Understand the main characteristics and types of pre-modern tourism in the “western” tradition Explain the basic distinctions and similarities between pre-modern and modern tourism Appreciate the role of Thomas Cook and Industrial Revolution in bringing about the modern era of tourism Describe the growth trend of international tourism during the twentieth century Understand the primary factors that have stimulated the demand for tourism during this period of time, and especially since 1950

3. Learning objects Describe global patterns of economic development and associate these patterns with different patterns of tourism demand and behavior Appreciates how emergent countries such as China and South Korea have attempted to manage their outbound and domestic tourism flows Identify the forces that could positively or negatively influence the future growth of the tourism industry

4. The evolution and growth of tourism

5. 3.2 Pre-modern tourism (BC 1500) Mesopotamia Egypt and the Indus Valley Ancient Greece Ancient Rome The Dark Ages(c.500—1100) The Middle Ages(c.1100—1500)

6. 3.2.1 Mesopotamia It is the first place in the world which experienced travel patterns. The agriculture development fostered the formation of wealth and the emergence of a small leisure class. The availability of discretionary time and discretionary income were probably the two most important factors that enabled leisured elite to engage in tourisms. Mesopotamia was the birthplace of many fundamental inventions and innovations that introduced both the demand and ability to travel for tourism-related purposes.

7. 3.2.2 Egypt and the Indus Valley The trappings and consequences of civilization gradually spread from Mesopotamia westward to Nile Valley and eastward to the Indus Valley. It is from ancient Egypt in particular that some of the earliest explicit evidence of pleasure tourism is found.

8. 3.2.3 Ancient Greece Tourism in ancient Greece is perhaps best associated with national festivals such as the Olympic Games. The transit process in ancient Greece was not a pleasant or easy process, because of the highway robbers or pirates, and the poor-condition road and accommodation. The propensity to engage in tourism was socially sanctioned by the prevalent philosophy of the culture (applicable at least to elite adult male citizens)

9. 3.2.4 Ancient Rome With its impressive technological, economic and political achievements, ancient Rome was able to achieve unprecedented levels of tourism activity that would not be reached again for at least another 1500 years. A. The large population of the Roman Empire B. The large selection of destination choices C. The high level of stability and safety achieved D. The remarkably sophisticated network of Roman military roads

10. 3.2.4 Ancient Rome Accompanied by ample discretionary wealthy, the Roman elite’s propensity to travel on pleasure holidays gave rise to an ‘industry’ of sorts (that supplied souvenirs, guidebooks, transport, guides, accommodation and other goods and services to the traveler). The number of specialized tourism sites and destination regions also increased substantially. (the spas, the beach resort, second homes or villas)

11. 3.2.4 Ancient Rome For Romans wealthy enough to travel a long distance, the historical sites of earlier cultures, especially those of the Greeks, Trojans and Egyptians, held the most interest. The geographical sophistication of the Roman would view is depicted in the world map compiled in the second century AD by the Roman geographer-astronomer Ptolemy. (see the Ptolemy’s world map of the second century AD)

13. 3.2.5 The Dark Ages(c.500—1100) Travel infrastructure deteriorated The sizes of the elite classes and urban areas declined dramatically The relatively safe and open Europe of the Romans was replaced by a proliferation of warring semi-states and lawless frontiers

14. 3.2.6 The Middle Ages(c.1100—1500) Christian pilgrimage was prosperous A. Even the poorest people participated in this form of travel, given the perceived spiritual and physical benefits to be derived from the journey B. The part of most pilgrims were willing to accept and even welcome a high level of risk as part of the overall experience, since suffering could confer even greater. spiritual rewards upon the participant The Crusades also contributed to the early development of this travel industry

15. 3.3 Early modern tourism (1500—1950) The Renaissance of Europe was well under way, heralding the emergence of the modern era and the period of early modern tourism. The traditional elite, along with the emerging merchant and professional classes, displayed a pattern of behavior roughly comparable to what the Romans had achieved 1500 years earlier. Villas reappeared throughout the Italian countryside, new resorts were established (spa resorts and seaside resorts) The improving transportation technologies facilitated long-distance travel within Europe and, gradually, to the European possessions beyond.

16. 3.3 Early modern tourism (1500—1950) The Grand Tour Thomas Cook The post-Cook period(1880-1950)

17. 3.3.1 The Grand Tour The Grand tour constitutes one of major links between the Middle Ages and contemporary tourism. Many young men from the aristocratic classes of the United Kingdom and the other parts of northern Europe undertook extend trips to continental Europe for educational and cultural purpose. There was no single circuit or timeframe that defined the Grand Tour, certain destinations feature prominently.

18. 3.3.2 Seaside resorts Crowded urban areas and difficult working conditions resulted in a widespread demand for recreational opportunities that would take the workers into a more pleasant and relaxing environment. Domestic seaside resorts emerged to fulfill this demand. Seaside resorts such as Brighton and Scarborough soon rivaled inland spa towns such as Bath as tourist attractions, with the added advantage that the target resource was virtually unlimited, and the opportunities for spatial expansion along the coast were numerous (case study ‘Brighton, England’)

19. 3.3.3 Thomas Cook Thomas Cook is associated with the emergence of tourism as a modern, large-scale industry, even though it would take another 150 years for mass tourism to be realized on a global scale. the first excursion in 1841 the first international excursion in 1863, the first round-the-world excursion in 1872 Those international trips were still very much the prerogative of the very wealthy.

20. 3.3.3 Thomas Cook The services of Cook’s company include: A. an inclusive, pre-paid, one-fee structure that covered transportation, accommodation, guides, food and other goods and services B. organized itineraries based on rigid time schedules C. uniform products of a highly professional quality D. affordable prices, made possible by the economies of scale created through large customer volumes Thomas Cook was to apply the formal production principles of the Industrial Revolution to tourism, with standardized, precisely, timed, commercialized and high-volume tour packages heralding the ‘industrialization’ of the sector,

21. 3.3.3 Thomas Cook Thomas Cook can be described as an effective managerial pioneer of the industry that accommodated the demand for these products, while the development of attractions and tourist destinations such as the seaside resorts was a mainly unplanned phenomenon. Today, the package tour is one of the fundamental, taken-for-granted components of the modern tourism industry.

22. 3.3.4 The post-Cook period (1880-1950) Largely as a result of Cook and his adaptation of Industrial Revolution technologies and principles to the travel industry, tourism expanded significantly from the 1870s onwards. This growth was initially concentrated in the domestic sector of the more industrialized countries such as the United States, Western Europe and Australia. The International tourism growth in the post-Cook period of the early modern era was less robust than the domestic tourism sector.

23. 3.4 Modern mass tourism (1950 onwards) The rapid growth has been experienced by the global tourism industry during the post-World War II era of modern mass tourism The rapid growth can be appreciated by examining the contemporary trend of inbound tourist arrivals and associated revenues. (the outbound tourists and the domestic tourism information is far more difficult to obtain)

24. 3.5 Factors associated with tourism development 3.5.1 Five separate push factors Economic factors (see Burton's four phase of tourism participation and Increasing discretionary income in Australia) Social factors Demographic factors Technological factors Political factors

26. Increasing discretionary income in Australia

27. 3.5.2 Social factors The major social trends that have influenced participation in tourism are the increase in discretionary time, its changing distribution and shifts in the way that society perceives this use of time. While the reduction in the amount of working tome has clear positive implications for the pursuit of leisure activities in general, it is the changing distribution of this time that is especially important to tourism.

28. 3.5.2 Social factors One of the first major changes was the introduction of the two-day weekend, which was instrumental in making possible stayover tourism to nearby (usually domestic) location. A second major change in the arrangement of working time was the introduction of the annual holiday entitlement again, Australia was a pioneer, being one of the first countries to enact the appropriate legislation to create a four-week holiday standard.

29. 3.5.2 Social factors Flexitime and earned time Flexitime allows a worker, within reason, to distribute their working hours in a manner that best suits their individual lifestyle. Earned time options are production rather than time-based, usually involving the right to go on vacation leave once a given production quota has been met.

30. 3.5.3 Demographic factors The later stages of the development process are associated with distinctive demographic transformations, at least four of which increase the propensity of the population to engage in tourism—related activities Reduced family size Population increase Urbanization Increased life expectancy

32. 3.5.4 Technological factors Aviation industry plays an a crucial role of transportation in the diffusion of tourism (see the table of the aviation industry rapidly progressed during the twentieth century) The development of the car industry during this century has paralleled the aviation industry in its rapid technical evolution and growth. (see the table of transportation modes for German pleasure tourists) Information technologies have also played an important role in the diffusion of tourism. (see case study ‘Entering the CAVE’)

35. 3.5.5 Political factors Tourism is fundamentally dependent on the freedom of people to travel both internationally and within their own countries. Often restricted for political and economic reasons in the earlier development stages, freedom of mobility is no longer a significant issue in Phase Four countries, where restrictions are usually limited to sensitive domestic military sites and certain countries subjects to bilateral or international sanction.

36. 3.6 Future growth prospects Given the incredibly rapid pace of change that is characterizing all facets of contemporary life, and attempt to make medium or long-term predictions about the tourism sector is very risk. It can be safely predicted that technology will continue to revolutionize the tourism industry, constantly pose new challenges to tourism managers and restructure tourism systems at all levels, however, the specific nature and timing of radical future innovation, or their exact implications, cannot be identified with any precision.

37. Future growth prospects In terms of demand, the amount of discretionary time and income available to individuals in Phase Four societies will probably not increase significantly in the medium term. However, the number of persons living within Phase Four countries is likely to increase dramatically over the next two or three decades as a consequence of the condensed development sequence. This refers to the fact that societies are undergoing the transition towards full economic development (i.e. a Phase Four state) in a reduced amount of time.

38. Case Study South Korean Outbound Market Questions 1 (a) Why was Korea able to achieve a “rags to riches” transition in such a short period of time? (b) How was this process reflected in the growth of the outbound tourist market? 2 (a) How and why did the Korean government attempt to manage the growing volume of outbound tourism? (b) Should it have taken harsher measures against this flow in the early to mid-1990s?

39. 3 What are the possible advantages and disadvantages for a business in choosing to specialize in just one rapidly growing tourist market, such as the Korean outbound market? 4 As a class, discuss the strategies that might be adopted by the Chinese government, regional governments and individual companies in response to the late 1990s collapse of the Korean inbound market.

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