Agenda. Announcements5 minutesSketching Critiques20 minutesLecture - Personas30 minutesBreak10 minutesPersona Segmentation
1. Personas & Scenarios HCDE 418
Autumn 2009 Class materials:
-IDEO method cards
-IDEO method cards
3. Announcements Your questions, comments, issues, appreciations?
Read: Buxton, pp. 102-152 (for next week)
A1: Look, Learn, Ask, Try
Due Today at 5:00 P.M.
1.5 Discussion board posts
P2: Contextual Inquiry & Survey
4. Announcements Creating Time Lapse Videos
5. Sketching Critiques 20 minutes
6. Sketching Critiques Count off by numbers
Take turns showing off your 3 sketches with each other
Each critic should offer advice and feedback about the idea
Sketcher: take notes about what feedback was offered
Critic: be critical, but constructive and courteous!
Each critic should sign the page after the sketches and date it with today’s date
7. Lecture 30 minutes
8. Personas - Overview Background – what are they?
Steps to create
Example using Kyrgyz personas
9. What is a persona? A persona is a archetypal character that is meant to represent a group of users in a role who share common goals, attitudes and behaviors when interacting with a particular product or service
(Mulder & Yaar, 2007; Cooper & Reimann, 2003; Pruitt & Aldin, 2006).
10. Background Alan Cooper mentions personas in his 1999 book, “The Inmates are Running the Asylum: Why High Tech Products Drive Us Crazy and How to Restore the Sanity.”
The mention brings the idea to into HCI discussion
11. Marketing profiles vs. design personas Marketing profiles are about identifying the consumer
Often start with demographics
Design personas are about identifying the user
Ideally start with the goals the user has for the product
Both ways to segment an audience
12. User Goals Goodwin (2001) personas should each have three to four goals
(1) Life goals which are personal aspirations, for example, wanting to retire before the age of 50
(2) Experience goals describe how the user wants to feel while interacting with a product; they are personal and universal, for example, wanting to be competent while using the product
(3) End goals, which are tangible outcomes the user has in mind when using the product.
Typically experience/end goals are more helpful to design.
13. Claims Empathy
We are engaged by fictional characters all the time in movies and books.
Constraints on the user population so that a design team can focus on a specific subset of users in specific situations while interacting with the to-be-designed product
Emancipates designers from problems that might arise when considering a full spectrum of users
Concentrate on the highest priority set of user goals and needs.
14. Claims....continued Communication
Conduits for conveying a broad range of quantitative and qualitative data
Assumptions about users made explicit
In the void of user research, designers have only their assumptions and intuitions guide their work.
“the whole point in creating personas is to get past our personal opinions and presuppositions.” Goodwin, 2002
15. Three basic steps to creating a persona (1) Collect data about users
(2) Segment the users
(3) Create personas
16. The literature is in agreement that personas need to be created using data from real users.
No consensus on type
Cooper prefers qualitative data based on interviews and observations of real users interacting with the product
Mulder and Yaar (2007) believe that researchers should always avail themselves of quantitative data if possible (e.g., survey data), arguing the resulting personas are more aligned to real user data Step 1: Data
17. Step 1: Collect Data Putnam used a combination of pre-existing data types for Krgyz Personas
Large scale survey
Provided inspiration for the proposed product
Created with a proposed product in mind
Mobile social software (MoSoSo) directory
Goal: provide accessible, reliable, and free information about phone numbers using social networks
E.g., Angie’s List, Amazon buying recommendations
18. Step 2: Segment the Users 460 respondents owned used and owned mobile phones
“What was your motivation to acquire your phone?”
Three logical groupings
(1) Replacement for home phone motivations;
(2) Practical motivations
Desire to make outgoing calls and pricing motivations
(3) Social motivations
Desire to receive incoming calls and a need for a mobile phone because friends had them.
19. Segmentation Groups Replacement group:
45 (13%) individuals in the replacement motivation group
84% of this group claimed to not have a phone at home
194 (55%) individuals in the practical motivation group.
99% gave a need to make calls when away from home or work as the motivation
113 (32%) individuals in the social motivation group.
85%wanted people to reach them at all times
20. Attitudes ANOVAs used to determine statistical significance
21. Mobile Phone Activities Chi-square used to determine statistical significance
22. Phone Origination
24. More Demographics
25. Other Technical Devices/Services
26. Step 3: Create the Persona
Name – first name starts with the first letter of the segmentation
Quote that describes the user goals with the product
Business goals - a priority rating and specific business objectives are also suggested
Biographical profile and personal information that affects usage
Computer, internet and other technology usage are common components
27. Presentation Types Paper-based mediums
28. Step 3: Create the Persona Parxat-practical user
29. Final Personas – Step 3 Presented as a single sheet
Used a photo that looked like a “real” person, e.g. not a model
Emphasized key differentiators
Included personal information as a bullet list
Included computer and Internet usage that would help define the technical abilities of each persona and illustrated significant behavior patterns
Included a prose personal profile
Outlined user goals for the product emphasizing end goals
36. Scenarios Story describing a character in an activity
UX research, they describe typical and significant user activities in relation to a product (Carroll, 2000; Go & Carrol, 2004)
Common suggested augmentation to personas
37. Scenario Example When Parxat arrives at his small computer club in the morning, he sees a flyer advertising the MoSoSo directory. The flyer explains that as a small business owner he can advertise his shop in the public information space where users can vote to recommend shops and services.
Parxat calls the service and discovers that listing a service requires using text.
Navigating the service through a phone tree system, he first decides to locate his shop under the public information space heading of “Computer cafe/club.” The entry system allows Parxat to set up two types of advertisements, one for users who utilize text and one for users who do not use text.
Later, Parxat asks one of his clients, Ilzat, to call the service and submit a positive vote. Ilzat already has a friends group that he belongs to in the MoSoSo directory and offers to not only give Parxat’s shop a good vote in the public information space, but to also add it as a recommended computer club in his group’s information space.
Class will resume in minute(s)
39. Persona Creation Exercise Goal – Design a child data system
Data – Survey Data from online survey with 30 families
1 – Collect Data
2 – Segment the Users
3 – Create the Personas
40. Class Debrief What did you learn?
Questions or clarifications?
41. Next Class Topics Tuesday, Oct. 20th
Sketching – Part 1
Reading Assignment for Week 4
Sketching User Experiences, pp. 102-152
P2 due Thursday, Oct. 22nd