An evolving model for conflict transformation and peacebuilding in aceh
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An Evolving Model for Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding in Aceh. Assessing Post-Helsinki Peacebuilding Initiatives in Aceh Presented by Wiratmadinata. 4 Stages of Conflict Transformation Aceh. 1976 – 2000 Intractable Conflict/Protracted Social Conflict 2000-2004

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An Evolving Model for Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding in Aceh

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An evolving model for conflict transformation and peacebuilding in aceh

An Evolving Model for Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding in Aceh

Assessing Post-Helsinki Peacebuilding Initiatives in Aceh

Presented by Wiratmadinata


4 stages of conflict transformation aceh

4 Stages of Conflict Transformation Aceh

  • 1976 – 2000

    Intractable Conflict/Protracted Social Conflict

  • 2000-2004

    Pre-peace Negotiation

  • January, 2005 – August 15, 2005

    Peace making and Peace Agreement Processes (Helsinki Peace Talks)

  • August 16, 2005 – Present

    Peace Keeping and Peacebuilding of Post-Conflict Reconstruction (Implementation)


An evolving model for conflict transformation and peacebuilding in aceh

The Helsinki Accord

August 15, 2005

Special Autonomy

Arrangements

Security

Arrangements

Social, political,

legal and economic

arrangements

?

?

Acehnese

Government

CMI, EU,

GAM, Indonesia

BRA

  • AMM

  • Aceh Monitoring Mission

  • Focus on DDR

  • UUPA

  • Law on Governing Aceh

  • 59 Special Regulations

  • (Qanum)

BRA

Reintegration

and Peace Fund

COSA

Operated for 18 months

’05-’06 <$21 million

’06-’07 <$21 million

’07-’08 <$25 million

’08-’09 <$68 million

General

Elections

TRC

Continuation of DDR

Aceh Human

Rights Court

Amnesty

FKK

Coordination and

Communication Forum

Former GAM < $2,700

PETA Militia < $1,000

Reintegration

Fund

Hydrocarbon

Revenues

Assistance for

Conflict Victims

Housing, education, health

Local Political

Parties

Wali Nangroe

Hymn, Flag etc

CoSPA

Commission on the

Sustainability of Peace in Aceh


An evolving model for conflict transformation and peacebuilding in aceh

The Helsinki Accord

August 15, 2005

Special Autonomy

Arrangements

Security

Arrangements

Social, political,

legal and economic

arrangements

?

?

Acehnese

Government

CMI, EU,

GAM, Indonesia

BRA

  • AMM

  • Aceh Monitoring Mission

  • Focus on DDR

  • UUPA

  • Law on Governing Aceh

  • 59 Special Regulations

  • (Qanum)

BRA

Reintegration

and Peace Fund

COSA

Operated for 18 months

’05-’06 <$21 million

’06-’07 <$21 million

’07-’08 <$25 million

’08-’09 <$68 million

General

Elections

TRC

Continuation of DDR

Aceh Human

Rights Court

Amnesty

FKK

Coordination and

Communication Forum

Former GAM < $2,700

PETA Militia < $1,000

Reintegration

Fund

Hydrocarbon

Revenues

Assistance for

Conflict Victims

Housing, education, health

Local Political

Parties

Wali Nangroe

Hymn, Flag etc

CoSPA

Commission on the

Sustainability of Peace in Aceh


Special autonomy arrangement

Special Autonomy Arrangement

  • UUPA (Act. No. 11/2006) LoGA:

    • Creates legal basis for autonomy.

    • Translated into 59 Special Regulations (Qanun) by the Aceh House of Representatives (including Qanun 7/2007)

      Key aspects of Special Autonomy

    • Pilkada (provincial election, 2006)

    • Reintegration Fund Provided (in progress)

    • Retain 70% of current and future hydrocarbon deposits revenue (in process)

    • Amnesty for GAM (Not completed)

    • Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Not yet formed)

    • Aceh Human Rights Court (Not yet formed)

    • Economic Facility; Farming Land and Social Security (Not yet formed)

    • Wali Nanggroe; Aceh Hymn, Flag and Symbol (Not yet resolved)

  • Significance:

    • Power sharing, containing grievances and reintegration.

    • Forced cooperation and trust building.


An evolving model for conflict transformation and peacebuilding in aceh

The Helsinki Accord

August 15, 2005

Special Autonomy

Arrangements

Security

Arrangements

Social, political,

legal and economic

arrangements

?

?

Acehnese

Government

CMI, EU,

GAM, Indonesia

BRA

  • AMM

  • Aceh Monitoring Mission

  • Focus on DDR

  • UUPA

  • Law on Governing Aceh

  • 59 Special Regulations

  • (Qanum)

BRA

Reintegration

and Peace Fund

COSA

Operated for 18 months

’05-’06 <$21 million

’06-’07 <$21 million

’07-’08 <$25 million

’08-’09 <$68 million

General

Elections

TRC

Continuation of DDR

Aceh Human

Rights Court

Amnesty

FKK

Coordination and

Communication Forum

Former GAM < $2,700

PETA Militia < $1,000

Reintegration

Fund

Hydrocarbon

Revenues

Assistance for

Conflict Victims

Housing, education, health

Local Political

Parties

Wali Nangroe

Hymn, Flag etc

CoSPA

Commission on the

Sustainability of Peace in Aceh


Security arrangement peacekeeping

Security Arrangement/Peacekeeping

  • AMM (Aceh Monitoring Mission; EU and ASEAN peacekeepers)

  • DDR (Demobilization, Disarmament and Reintegration)

    • GAM troops disarmed and dismissed

    • Indonesian non-organic forces withdrawn

    • Reintegration

    • AMM existed for 18 months

    • Lacked a well-planned exit strategy

  • Commission of Security Arrangements (CoSA)

    • Consists of GAM and Indonesian representatives.

    • Discussed misunderstandings and technical matters regarding Helsinki; communicated during low level clashes.

    • The continuation: FKK (Coordination and Communication Forum) and CoSPA (Commission on Sustainability Peace).


  • An evolving model for conflict transformation and peacebuilding in aceh

    The Helsinki Accord

    August 15, 2005

    Special Autonomy

    Arrangements

    Security

    Arrangements

    Social, political,

    legal and economic

    arrangements

    ?

    ?

    Acehnese

    Government

    CMI, EU,

    GAM, Indonesia

    BRA

    • AMM

    • Aceh Monitoring Mission

    • Focus on DDR

    • UUPA

    • Law on Governing Aceh

    • 59 Special Regulations

    • (Qanum)

    BRA

    Reintegration

    and Peace Fund

    COSA

    Operated for 18 months

    ’05-’06 <$21 million

    ’06-’07 <$21 million

    ’07-’08 <$25 million

    ’08-’09 <$68 million

    General

    Elections

    TRC

    Continuation of DDR

    Aceh Human

    Rights Court

    Amnesty

    FKK

    Coordination and

    Communication Forum

    Former GAM < $2,700

    PETA Militia < $1,000

    Reintegration

    Fund

    Hydrocarbon

    Revenues

    Assistance for

    Conflict Victims

    Housing, education, health

    Local Political

    Parties

    Wali Nangroe

    Hymn, Flag etc

    CoSPA

    Commission on the

    Sustainability of Peace in Aceh


    Reintegration and peace arrangement bra

    Reintegration And Peace Arrangement (BRA)

    • Origins

      • Formed by Forbes Damai –a multi-stakeholder group initiated by Aceh Civil Society Organization (CSO)

      • Endorsed by the Governor of Aceh in 2006

      • It is both advisory and implementing body with two branches and a Secretariat (funded by USAID)

    • BRA initiatives include

      • Economic and social assistance to conflict victims

      • Assistance to former combatants, political prisoners

      • Reconstruction help for those who lost houses

      • Compensation for the families of victims

    • Spending decided by government budgeting.

    • BRA focuses on monetary disbursement no deeper transitional justice or reintegration efforts.

    • BRA is still developing


    Aceh reintegration and peace agency bra

    Aceh Reintegration and Peace Agency (BRA)

    • Aceh Reintegration Fund Budget:

      • 2005-2006:< $ 21 million

      • 2006-2007:< $ 21 million

      • 2007-2008:< $ 25 million

      • 2008-2009 < $ 68 million

      • 2009-2010:$ TBD

    • Social Assistance provided per capita:

      • Former GAM Combatant- < $ 2,700

      • PETA “Militia” (Anti-GAM) < $ 1,000

      • Former GAM Combatant (surrender) < $ 1,000

      • House Damaged < $ 3,000

      • Medical Treatment/DisabilitiesVaries

      • Scholarship for the Victims childrenVaries

      • Cultural Support


    Current challenges to the peace process 1of 3 challenges involving gam

    Current Challenges to the Peace Process (1of 3)Challenges involving GAM

    • The growth of the KPA (Aceh Transition Committee)

      • KPA acts as GAM’s “shadow power”

      • KPA is falsely presented as an official part of the peace process.

      • GAM leaders now command KPA

    • Incomplete Disarmament

      • Crime increased following Helsinki

      • The DDR process left weapons in circulation

      • Former combatants turning to violent crime

    • GAM’s Transition to Politics

      • GAM became the Aceh Party (PA)

      • Still not purely political - intimidation and KPA persist.

      • GAM is splitting into factions – leadership is losing control


    Current challenges to the peace process 2 of 3 challenges for peace process institutions

    Current Challenges to the Peace Process (2 of 3)Challenges for Peace Process Institutions

    • Bringing Conceptual Politics into everyday Life

      • Plans difficult to actualize

      • Aceh government lacks capacity to deliver basic services

      • Rise in Serious Crime

      • These details impact society’s support of the peace process and perceptions of the government.

    • Finding the correct role for the BRA

      • Now it only disperses funding

      • BRA has ‘investigation teams’ to look at incidents of abuse but no program to analyze and fix root causes.

    • Future Involvement of CSO

      • CSO no sufficiently involved in the peace process

      • Lack resources

      • Local organizations cannot access donor funds


    Current challenges to the peace process 3 of 3 other challenges

    Current Challenges to the Peace Process (3 of 3)Other Challenges

    • ABAS-ALA calls for independence from Aceh

      • Aceh Leuser Antara (ALA) and Aceh Barat-Selatan (ABAS) want to separate from Aceh

      • Gayo peoples desire their own territory

      • May give rise a new conflict

    • Performance of International Actors

      • International actors often lack long term vision

      • Cooperation with local actors tends to be limited to preliminary consultations

      • IOs have actually pushed local actors out of the process

      • Little coordination between different donors


    Recommendations

    Recommendations

    • BRA must be more than a disbursement organization.

      • More reintegration, reconciliation and sustainable peace initiatives.

    • Need a reevaluation of the role of international agencies

      • More long term approaches

      • More local involvement

    • A serious crime reduction strategy is needed.

    • KPA needs to be reformed

      • Either break ties with GAM or join in legal politics.

    • Local CSOs need to be involved more

      • Community integration into the peace process is vital.

    • Need to provide basic services

      • Prevents new grievances


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