Gross domestic product
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Gross Domestic Product. What is gross domestic product (GDP)? How is GDP calculated? What is the difference between nominal and real GDP?. What Is Gross Domestic Product?.

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Gross Domestic Product

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Gross domestic product

Gross Domestic Product

  • What is gross domestic product (GDP)?

  • How is GDP calculated?

  • What is the difference between nominal and real GDP?


What is gross domestic product

What Is Gross Domestic Product?

  • Economists monitor the macroeconomy using national income accounting, a system that collects statistics on production, income, investment, and savings.


Gross domestic product

  • Gross domestic product (GDP) is the dollar value of all final goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a given year.

  • GDP does not include the value of intermediate goods. Intermediate goods are goods used in the production of final goods and services.


Intermediate vs final goods

Intermediate vs. Final Goods

Intermediate Goods Not included in GDP

Final Good $500,000

Included in GDP


Calculating gdp

Calculating GDP

Consumer goods include durable goods, goods that last for a relatively long time like refrigerators, and nondurable goods, or goods that last a short period of time, like food and light bulbs.


Durable goods vs nondurable goods

Durable Goods vs. Nondurable Goods

Durable GoodsNondurable Goods


Gross domestic product

GDP - Handout


Formula to calculate gdp

Formula to Calculate GDP

C + I + G + (X-M) = GDP

Where

  • C = Consumer Goods (Consumption)

  • I = Investment Spending (Business Goods)

  • G = Government Spending

  • X = Exports

  • M - Imports


Gross domestic product

  • C + I + G + (X-M) = GDP

  • Where:

    • C = + 4,390.6

    • I = + 892.0

    • G = + 1157.1

    • X = + 660.1

    • M - - 725.8

    • GDP = 6374.0


United states gdp in billions of dollars

United States GDP – (in billions of dollars)


Gross domestic product

  • Per Capita GDP (GDP Divided by the Population) is often used to compare the economies of countries and the well-being of their citizens. This is the best measure of how well people live in a given country.


Gdp examples

GDP Examples

Per Capita

Total

United States – $14.72 T

China – $9.872 T

India – $4.05 T

Sweden – $444.6 B

Japan – $4.34 T

http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_gdp-economy-gdp&date=2006

United States – $45,759

China – $7,368

India – $2,625

Sweden – $39,000

Japan – $33,523

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html


Gross domestic product

Video

Virtual Economics - GDP


Gross domestic product

Video – Virtual Economics

  • Real vs. Nominal GDP


Gross domestic product

Nominal GDP is GDP measured in current prices. It does not account for price level increases from year to year.

Real GDP is GDP expressed in constant, or unchanging, dollars. (Inflation adjusted dollars)


Gross domestic product how to measure it

Gross Domestic Product-How to Measure It

Activity

Choropleth Map Comparing Per Capita GDP in South America

On the back answer the following question:

What assumptions can you make about how well the people live in Guyana versus how well people live in Suriname?


Influences on gdp

Influences on GDP

  • Aggregate Supply – the total amount of goods and services in the economy available at all possible price levels

  • Aggregate Demand – the amount of goods and services in the economy that will be purchased at all possible price levels

  • Price level – the average of all prices in the economy


Section 1 assessment

Section 1 Assessment

1. Real GDP takes which of the following into account?

(a) changes in supply

(b) changes in prices

(c) changes in demand

(d) changes in aggregate demand

2. Which of the following is an example of a durable good?

(a) a refrigerator

(b) a hair cut

(c) a pair of jeans

(d) a pizza

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Section 1 assessment1

Section 1 Assessment

1. Real GDP takes which of the following into account?

(a) changes in supply

(b) changes in prices

(c) changes in demand

(d) changes in aggregate demand

2. Which of the following is an example of a durable good?

(a) a refrigerator

(b) a hair cut

(c) a pair of jeans

(d) a pizza

Want to connect to the PHSchool.com link for this section? Click Here!


Business cycles

Business Cycles

  • What is a business cycle?

  • What keeps the business cycle going?

  • How do economists forecast business cycles?

  • How have business cycles fluctuated in the United States?


Virtual economics

Virtual Economics

Video – Business Cycles


What is a business cycle

What Is a Business Cycle?

A modern industrial economy experiences cycles of goods times, then bad times, then good times again.

Business cycles are of major interest to macroeconomists, who study their causes and effects.

A business cycle is a macroeconomic period of expansion followed by a period of contraction.


Four phases of the business cycle

Four Phases of the Business Cycle

Expansion

  • An expansion is a period of economic growth as measured by a rise in real GDP. Economic growth is a steady, long-term rise in real GDP.

    Peak

  • When real GDP stops rising, the economy has reached its peak, the height of its economic expansion.

    Contraction

  • Following its peak, the economy enters a period of contraction, an economic decline marked by a fall in real GDP. A recession is a prolonged economic contraction. ( Two consecutive quarters or 6 month of a decline in GDP) An especially long or severe recession may be called a depression.

    Trough

  • The trough is the lowest point of economic decline, when real GDP stops falling.


What keeps the business cycle going

What Keeps the Business Cycle Going?

Business cycles are affected by four main economic variables:

  • 1 Business Investment

  • Interest Rates and Credit

  • Consumer Expectations

  • 4. External Shocks


Forecasting business cycles

Forecasting Business Cycles

  • Economists try to forecast, or predict, changes in the business cycle.

  • Leading indicators are key economic variables economists use to predict a new phase of a business cycle.

  • Examples of leading indicators are stock market performance, interest rates, new home sales, and manufacturers new orders of capital goods.


Lagging indicator

Lagging Indicator

  • A lagging indicator follows the performance of the economy – an example would be the unemployment rate.


Gross domestic product

Economy

Leading Indicators

Lagging Indicators


Section 2 assessment

Section 2 Assessment

1. A business cycle is

(a) a period of economic expansion followed by a period of contraction.

(b) a period of great economic expansion.

(c) the length of time needed to produce a product.

(d) a period of recession followed by depression and expansion.

2. A recession is

(a) a period of steady economic growth.

(b) a prolonged economic expansion (6 month decline in GDP).

(c) an especially long or severe economic contraction.

(d) a prolonged economic contraction.

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Section 2 assessment1

Section 2 Assessment

1. A business cycle is

(a) a period of economic expansion followed by a period of contraction.

(b) a period of great economic expansion.

(c) the length of time needed to produce a product.

(d) a period of recession followed by depression and expansion.

2. A recession is

(a) a period of steady economic growth.

(b) a prolonged economic expansion.

(c) an especially long or severe economic contraction.

(d) a prolonged economic contraction.

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Economic growth

Economic Growth

  • How do economists measure economic growth?

  • What is capital deepening?

  • How are saving and investing related to economic growth?

  • How does technological progress affect economic growth?

  • What other factors can affect economic growth?


Measuring economic growth

Measuring Economic Growth

GDP and Population Growth

In order to account for population increases in an economy, economists use a measurement of real GDP per capita. It is a measure of real GDP divided by the total population.

Real GDP per capita is considered the best measure of a nation’s standard of living.

The basic measure of a nation’s economic growth rate is the percentage change of real GDP over a given period of time.


Activity

Activity

Why Are Some Nations Wealthy??


Capital deepening

The process of increasing the amount of capital per worker is called capital deepening. Capital deepening is one of the most important sources of growth in modern economies.

Firms increase physical capital by purchasing more equipment. Firms and employees increase human capital through additional training and education.

Capital Deepening


The effects of savings and investing

How Saving Leads to Capital Deepening

Shawna’s income: $30,000

$25,000 spent

$5,000 saved

$3,000 in a mutual fund (stocks and corporate bonds)

$2,000 in “rainy day” bank account

Bank lends Shawna’s money to firms in forms such as loans and mortgages

Mutual-fund firm makes Shawna’s $3,000 available to firms

Firms spend money on business capital investment

The Effects of Savings and Investing

The proportion of disposable income spent to income saved is called the savings rate.

When consumers save or invest, money in banks, their money becomes available for firms to borrow or use. This allows firms to deepen capital.

  • In the long run, more savings will lead to higher output and income for the population, raising GDP and living standards.


The effects of technological progress

The Effects of Technological Progress

  • Besides capital deepening, the other key source of economic growth is technological progress.

  • Technological progress is an increase in efficiency gained by producing more output without using more inputs.


Section 3 assessment

Section 3 Assessment

1. Capital deepening is the process of

(a) increasing consumer spending.

(b) selling off obsolete equipment.

(c) decreasing the amount of capital per worker.

(d) increasing the amount of capital per worker.

  • How does capital deepening increase the standard of living in a country?

    a. It increase per capita GDP

    b. It decreases per capita GDP

    c. It lowers the inflation rate

    d. It increases the cost of living.

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Section 3 assessment1

Section 3 Assessment

1. Capital deepening is the process of

(a) increasing consumer spending.

(b) selling off obsolete equipment.

(c) decreasing the amount of capital per worker.

(d) increasing the amount of capital per worker.

  • How does capital deepening increase the standard of living in a country?

    a. It increase per capita GDP

    b. It decreases per capita GDP

    c. It lowers the inflation rate

    d. It increases the cost of living.

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