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# 1 killer in the United States. Heart Disease. < 20 LOW. 20-29 MODERATE. AT RISK?. 30-45 HIGH. > 45 EXTREMELY HIGH. CAROTID ARTERY. RADIAL ARTERY. Medical disorders that affect the heart and blood vessels. Heart, blood, and arteries are parts of the circulatory system.

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< 20

LOW

20-29

MODERATE

AT RISK?

30-45

HIGH

> 45

EXTREMELY

HIGH


CAROTID

ARTERY

RADIAL

ARTERY


Cardiovascular disease

  • Medical disorders that affect the heart and blood vessels.

    • Heart, blood, and arteries are parts of the circulatory system.

    • When a problem affects one part, the entire system is threatened.

  • Your lifestyle choices and health habits you adopt now can directly influence your future risk.

  • CVD accounts for 45% of all deaths among people aged 45 years or over.

Cardiovascular Disease


WE NEED TO LEARN

THE ANATOMY FIRST


Risk factors

  • The result of blood vessels inability to carry oxygen and nutrients to the heart which allow it to pump blood effectively

  • Risk factors:

    • Hypertension (<140/90; healthy = 120/80)

      • Systolic: pressure on arteries when the heart beats.

      • Diastolic: pressure on arteries when the heart is not beating

      • Cholesterol (240+; healthy = <200)

    • Smoking

    • Age

    • Gender

    • Race

    • Family History

    • Obesity

    • Lifestyle

      • (Activity level, secondhand smoke, stress, diet)

Risk Factors


Hypertension

Blood pressure is the force of blood against the walls of blood vessels as blood flows through the circulatory system.

Known as the “silent killer”

Risk Factors: obesity, alcohol use, inactivity, smoking, excessive salt intake.

Prevention: no cure; controlled by life style changes- diet, losing excess weight and exercise. Medication.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpuZHv60Fj8

Hypertension


Cholesterol
Cholesterol blood vessels as blood flows through the circulatory system.


Artery disease

Arteriosclerosis blood vessels as blood flows through the circulatory system.

Atherosclerosis

  • Hardening of the arteries

  • A condition in which the walls of the arteries become thick and loses their elasticity.

  • Most common cause of death in the U.S.

    • Plaque obstructs blood flow

    • A slow, progressive condition of the blood vessels

    • Arteries become narrowed due to build-up of fat and cholesterol, causing inflammation .

    • The deposits harden, causing plaque

    • Plaque can break off and clog an artery leading to heart attack or stroke

    • Treatment includes lowering fat intake and cholesterol levels, losing weight

    Artery Disease


    Angina

    • Chest Pain blood vessels as blood flows through the circulatory system.

    • Pain and tightness in the chest caused by the lack of oxygen to the heart.

    • Serves as an SOS- warns body the heart is in distress.

    • Pain can last a few minutes

    • Treatment

      • change health behaviors

      • medications to dilate the blood vessels

      • sometimes surgery.

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBn9munofVs

    Angina


    Heart attack

    • Part of the heart starves and dies due to the supply artery becoming completely blocked

    • End result of a long term disease process

    • Can be fatal- immediate response can be the difference

    • Distress may extend into one or both arms, upper abdomen.

    • Risk Factors:

      • High cholesterol, stress, overeating, smoking, and hypertension.

    • Treatment

      • Angioplasty or bypass surgery

      • Exercise, eat well, medication

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n8P3n6GKBSY

    Heart Attack


    Congestive heart failure

    A progressive weakening of the heart muscle that reduces its ability to pump effectively

    Atherosclerosis- biggest cause

    When the heart cannot pump well, results in either poor output- (blood cannot get to the vital organs- or the blood backs up leading to excess fluid)

    Medications can be prescribed to prevent episodes, but it is important to watch fluid and salt intake, monitor weight and seek help early.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GnpLm9fzYxU

    Congestive Heart Failure


    Stroke

    • Similar to a heart attack occurring in the brain ability to pump effectively

    • An interruption of the flow of blood to any part of the brain.

    • Warning signs:

      • Weakness/numbness of face, arm, leg on one side of body

      • Loss of speech or trouble understanding people

      • Loss of vision or dimness in one eye

      • Dizziness or sudden falls

    • Causes:

      • Blocking of the cerebral artery by a blood clot- Thrombus

      • Diseased artery in the brain can burst and flood the brain tissue with blood- Cerebral Hemorrhage

    • About 2/3 of stroke victims are over 65

    • Main risk factor is high blood pressure.

    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SQq_1oSBei0

    Stroke


    Surgical procedures

    Heart Transplant- ability to pump effectively replacing damaged heart with a heart from a person who recently died.

    Coronary Bypass Surgery- creates detours around obstructed arteries so blood can reach the heart.

    Balloon Angioplasty- catheter is inflated in site of blockage to push plaque against artery wall to open a path.

    Heart Valve Surgery- valve can be too tight or big, surgery replaces defective valve with an artificial one made of metal or plastic.

    Surgical Procedures


    Be knowledgable on emergency care
    BE KNOWLEDGABLE ON ability to pump effectively EMERGENCY CARE

    CPR

    Cardio-pulmonary

    resuscitation

    chest compressions to circulate oxygenated blood

    CALL 911


    Reduce your risk

    • Reduce/stop tobacco, alcohol and drug exposure ability to pump effectively

    • Decrease diabetes symptoms

      • Dietary modifications

      • Increased physical activity

    • Reduce blood pressure

      • Dietary modifications (more fruit/veg, reduced sodium/fat)

      • Increased physical activity

    • Improve cholesterol (lower total & LDL, raise HDL)

      • Dietary modifications (less simple carbs & saturated/trans fats)

      • Increased physical activity

    • Stress Management/reduction

    • Physical Activity

    • Maintain a weight that is healthy for you

    • Doctor Visits

    Reduce your risk?


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