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Heart Disease

Pine Manor College

March 5, 2008

Katherine Malanson


Heart Disease

Which of these people has heart disease???


At the end of this session today you will

Cite prevalence and incidence data of heart disease

Identify major ethnic and gender differences in heart disease prevalence and incidence

Identify the major structures of the heart, including atria, ventricles and valves

Understand the basis of the cardiac action potential

Objectives


Prevalence

  • Heart disease, also called Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), is a number of abnormal conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels.

  • Worldwide heart disease kills more than 17.5 million people, which is 30% of all deaths.

    • Over 80% of chronic disease deaths occur in low and middle income countries.


Pop Quiz

How many people die of heart disease in the United States each year?

a. 200,000

b. 400,000

c. 600,000

d. 800,000


Causes of Death for all People in the United States


Percentage Breakdown of Deaths from Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)


Pop Quiz

What is the projected cost of heart disease for 2006, including health care services, medications, and lost productivity?

a. 100 million

b. 750 million

c. 100 billion

d. 250 billion


Risk Factors for CVD


Pop Quiz

In 2003, what percentage of adults reported having two or more of six risk factors for heart disease and stroke?

a. 0 – 24 %

b. 25 – 49 %

c. 50 – 74%

d. 75 – 100%


Does Heart Disease Affect Men more than Women?


What about Ethnicity?


The Heart: Anatomy


The Heart: Anatomy

  • Layers

    • Pericardium

    • Myocardium

    • Endothelium

  • Two sides

    • Right

    • Left

  • Four chambers

    • Upper – Atria

    • Lower - Ventricles

7

1

6

5

4

2

3


The Heart: Anatomy

  • AV valves – between the atrium and ventricle

    • Right AV valve - tricuspid valve

    • Left AV valve – mitral valve

  • Pulmonary Valve

  • Aortic Valve

1

2

3

4


Path of a Blood Cell


Pop Quiz

  • How much blood does the heart pump in a day?

    a. 100 gallons

    b. 1000 gallons

    c. 2000 gallons

    d. 5000 gallons


The Heart as a Muscular Pump

Cardiac Muscle- striated due to arrangement of myosin and actin- adjacent cells are joined end to end by intercalated disks- adjacent cells are electrically linked by gap junctions


Cardiac Excitation

Conducting system of the heart


Cardiac Excitation


Pop Quiz

How many times does the human heart “beat” (expand and contract) in a day?

a. 50,000

b. 100,000

c. 150,000

d. 200,000


Cardiac Action Potential

Ion channel permeability during Action Potential


Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

  • P – atrial depolarization

  • QRS – ventricular depolarization

  • T – ventricular repolarization


Cardiac Action Potential

A. Clinical – EKG

B. Cellular - Action Potential

C

C. Molecular – Electrophysiology recordings


Objectives

  • Now you should be able to

    • Cite prevalence and incidence data of heart disease

    • Identify major ethnic and gender differences in heart disease prevalence and incidence

    • Identify the major structures of the heart, including atria, ventricles and valves.

    • Understand the basis of the cardiac action potential


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