Ancient Egypt. Time Line. A.D. B.C. 500. 500. 3000. 2500. 2000. 1500. 1000. 3500. 270 B.C. Meroitic Period In Kush. 2625 B.C. Old Kingdom Begins. 1539 B.C. New Kingdom Begins. 730 B.C. Nubian Dynasty Rules Egypt. Geography of Northern Africa. Vocabulary:.
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Geography of Northern Africa
A grassy plain with many
trees and animals.
Low land formed at the
mouth of some rivers by
the silt the river drops
A series of rapids and
The Nile Valley
During the Old Stone Age, the
Paleolithic period, the area we know
today as the Sahara Desert was
a savanna. The people living
there were hunters and gatherers.
Around 5000 B.C., the climate began
to change and the Sahara began to
dry. Animals left and plants died.
People were not able to survive in the
harsh desert and began to move into
the Nile River Valley.
along each side of the river.
than 4,000 miles from its main source
at Lake Victoria in central Africa.
The river flows to the Mediterranean
Sea where the Nile Delta is formed.
The land around the river is higher
at the beginning of the river and lower
near the mouth of the river.
The ancient people called the higher
land in the south “Upper Egypt.”
The land in the north, the delta area,
was called “Lower Egypt.”
mainly of the Nile Delta.
Upper Egypt. In some places there
was a narrow strip of flat fertile land
between the cliffs and the river.
limestone and sandstone.
Upper and Lower Egypt
Sound Familiar ?
Each year heavy rains in central
Africa caused the river to overflow
its banks. When the floodwaters
drained away, a rich silt remained.
The silt was a natural fertilizer.
The dark soil was called “Kemet”
meaning “black land.”
The Ancient Egyptians believed
their god Hapi caused the yearly
The yearly flooding continued until the
Aswan Dam was built in 1972.
Now the people use pumps,
canals, and chemical fertilizer
to keep the land suitable for farming.
The dry, barren lands of the Sahara
were known as “Deshuret,” or the
The Nile River cuts the eastern part
of the Sahara in two.
The land on the west side of the river
is called the Western Desert.
The land on the east side of the river is
called the Arabian Desert.
Farming in the Valley
Wealthy landowners controlled almost
all of the farmland.
Farmers rented and the owners
took part of the crop as payment.
Typical crops included wheat, barley,
onions, lettuce, and beans.
special days, so they caught fish or
used nets to catch geese or ducks.
more than just food.
Describe the Nile River.
Why was the flooding of the Nile River
so important to the Egyptians?
What is the difference between the Black Land and the Red Land?
How might Egypt have developed if the
Sahara had not dried and become a
Importance of ...
The Nile was know as the giver of life.
It united the populous of Egypt into one Nation-State.
the Nile River
A region with a single
government and a united
group of people.
To be able to tell ahead of time.
Yearly flood in Ancient Egypt.
Life after death
Towns that were capitals
Giver and Taker of Life
The Nile was called the “Giver of
Life” and helped bring the people
planks,and some were 60 feet long.
use the strong current to travel.
to catch the steady north wind.
Concerns About the Nile
Source of Innovation
the yearly floods (inundation) would
created a 365 day calendar based
on the sun.
The Egyptians divided the year into three seasons based on the river’s actions.
Inundation – the start of the new
Emergence – land emerged from
beneath the water
Harvest – the time when crops were
Inundation – The land was made new
by the rich silt left by
Emergence – Farmers planted using
plows or hoes to create
furrows. They dropped
seeds and led cattle or
other animals through the
fields to push the seed
into the ground.
Harvest – The final season. In most
years farmers would have
a large crop.
Very little rain fell in Egypt.
The hot, dry climate was very harsh.
The Ancient Egyptians developed
irrigation so they could water their crops.
During Emergence they trapped water in ponds to use in case of drought.
They also built dams and dikes to hold back the river when there was too much flooding. Canals were built to carry excess water back to the river from the fields.
Source of Religion
The Ancient Egyptians believed in many
gods and used stories about them
to explain events in nature.
They believed the sun was a god
that was born each day and died
They believed religion was important to
their survival in the Nile River Valley.
god of wisdom
goddess of love
ruled over the dead
god of the river
the sun god (most important)
The Egyptians prayed to their gods
and believed in life after death.
A book of prayers called The Book
of the Dead was placed in their tombs
To be used as a guide in the afterlife.
About 5000 B.C. small farming villages
grew up along the Nile.
As populations grew, villages became
Some towns became capitals of city-
states called nomes. Leaders of nomes
competed for wealth and power.
By around 3,500 B.C. the city-states
joined together forming two large
The kingdoms were known as the “Two
Lands.”(Upper Egypt & Lower Egypt)
Around 3000 B.C. the Upper Egyptian
Kings had gained control of Lower
Egypt. Uniting Egypt marked the
Beginning of the world’s first nation-state,
which lasted for 3,000 years.
Who Really United the
No one really knows. Legend says
King Menes did. Some experts think
King Narmer did because in artwork
he is shown wearing a double crown
that combines the white crown
of Upper Egypt and the red
crown of Lower Egypt.
How did the Nile bring
What did the Egyptians do to control
How did the Egyptians explain events
Why was uniting Egypt important?
Early Egyptian Rule
Over 33 Dynasties
Vocabulary - Lesson 3
A series of rulers
from the same family.
Vocabulary - Lesson 3
Of writing using over
Paper made from reeds that
grew along the Nile.
A burial place for the dead
A preserved body
Egypt's Early Period
and referred to the ruler’s palace.
believed to be the son of Re, the sun
between man and the gods.
Why did the Egyptian civilization last so long?
decrees and took care of running
building projects, and enforced
How do we know about the early kings?
system of writing.
words or ideas
collecting and record keeping.
joined end-to-end. Some were over
100 feet long.
Three Main Divisions of Egyptian History
The Old Kingdom
2625 to 2130 B.C.
Great achievements in building
The Middle Kingdom
1980 to 1630 B.C.
Changes in government, trade expanded,
changes in society
1539 to 1075 B.C.
The New Kingdom
First full time army, empire expanded
The Old Kingdom
Egypt for resources
incense oils, ebony, ivory, & other
Old Kingdom - Age of Pyramids
their bodies in the afterlife.
Are You My Mummy?
wrapped in linen cloth
was placed in the tomb with the body.
Where Did My Mummy Go ?
The Egyptians believed the soul
appeared before the god Osiris and
a group of judges.
The dead person’s heart was
placed on one side of a
scale and a feather (the
feather of truth) was placed
on the other side.
Imhotep, architect for King Zoser, built
the first stone tomb – a step pyramid.
Egyptians believed that pharaoh went to
Live with Amon-Re, their most powerful
The step pyramid may have been
Imhotep’s way to help the king “climb the
stairway to heaven.”
The best known pyramids were built at
Giza beginning in about 2600 B.C.
The largest pyramid was built for
The citizens of Egypt had to pay a
labor tax by working for the government.
As many as 10,000 farmers worked on
the pyramids during inundation.
Workers cut and moved more than 2
million stone blocks.
Each block weighed about 5,000 pounds.
The blocks were probably moved on
The Great Pyramid of Khufu is about
480 feet high and covers 13 acres.
Egyptian Way of Life
Women – long sleeveless dresses
made of linen
Men – knee-length linen skirts with
or without short-sleeved shirts
Men & Women wore jewelry and makeup
Wealthy often wore fancy wigs
Houses – made of mud brick & had a
shrine for worship of household gods
Farmers worked for the government
Men – artists, carpenters, builders,
stonecutters – worked 10 days,
off 1 day
They listened to music, sang, & danced
at religious festivals & parties.
Some women were craft workers.
Most weavers were women.
Women could own property and had
full legal rights.
Children were seen as gifts from the gods.
They played games such as leap frog,
tug-of-war, and wrestling.
Girls learned weaving & household skills from their mothers.
Boys learned their father’s trade.
Upper class children learned math,
literature, and writing.
Use Your Brain
Who controlled the land and people of
Why did the Egyptians preserve their
How did the Egyptian government get
workers to build the pyramids?
What were the periods between the
three main kingdoms called?