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The Impact of Civilisation on Medical Developments
(A) THE DELTA North of Memphis, the Nile divided into channels, to form a delta. Much of this land was swampy, but the rest was good for farming. (B) OASIS The Western Desert had a few places where enough water was available for crops to be grown. These were called oases. (C) THE EASTERN DESERT The Eastern Desert had no oases but it contained valuable minerals, including gold. (D) THE VALLEY The valley was only 19 km wide but over 5,960 km long. (E) CATARACTS Ships sailing south were stopped by cataracts (rapids).
Good Farming Land
Complex flood patterns
Mathematical skills required
Advanced planning required
(A) HARVEST When the main crops were ready, nearly everyone - men and women, even priests - helped with the harvest. (B) MUSIC Musicians played while work went on in the fields. At planting time, magic spells were chanted to make the crops grow. (C) WINNOWING Women scooped the grain up with wooden trays, letting the chaff blow away while the heavier grain fell to the ground. (D) TAXES Farmers paid part of their crop as taxes. Scribes kept careful records of the amounts. (E) CATTLE Young boys helped to look after the livestock. A man's wealth could be judged by the cattle he owned. Farmers also owned sheep, goats, and donkeys.
Surplus Food Produced
Store for future use
Trade for other goods
Not everyone needs to farm
New trades and specialities develop
(A) MERCHANT SHIPSmall boats were made of bundles of reeds tied together. Larger ships were built of wood. This one sailed through the dangerous Red Sea.(B) CARGOShips had no deck, except for short sections at each end, and the crew stowed cargo in the open hold. The ship had oars and one large sail.(C) THE LAND OF PUNTShips that sailed to Punt were carried across the desert in pieces and built on the shore of the Red Sea. Punt was probably in eastern Africa, but nobody knows exactly where.
New Products and Ideas can be imported
Makes money which can be invested
To please the Gods
New jobs available for talented craftsmen
Surplus food Production allows for their wages to be paid
New Products and Skills Develop
Some with medical application!
(A) POTTERY Pots of many shapes and sizes were made from local clay. It was shaped by hand in a mold made of stiff sand, given a glaze, and hardened in fire. (B) GOLD The Egyptians had plenty of gold, mostly from mines in Nubia. Jewellery and gold-plated objects were made. Statues and even a king's coffin were made of solid gold.
(C) SANDALS The shoemaker's trade was simple, because the only shoes people wore were sandals, made of leather or papyrus reed. Usually they went barefoot. (D) WOOD CARVING This man is making a wooden animal. Most woodworking tools, such as saws and chisels, have not changed much since.
(A) RAISING STONE BLOCKSOne of the hardest jobs was moving the heavy stone blocks into place. The builders made huge ramps of earth and dragged the stones up the ramps with ropes.(B) SUPERVISORSOfficials, who were probably priests, directed the gangs of workmen.(C) SHAPING THE STONEEach stone was carefully measured and shaped to fit into place.(D) ACCIDENTSMany workmen were killed or injured, crushed by the heavy stone blocks.
Large Scale projects were now feasible
Writing and Mathematics
Public Works projects
“It is seven days from yesterday since I saw my love,
And Sickness has crept over me,
My limbs have become heavy,
I cannot feel my own body.
If the Master-Physicians come to me
I gain no comfort from their remedies.
And the priest-magicians have no cures,
My sickness is not diagnosed.
My love is better by far for me than any remedies.
She is more important than all the books of medicine.”
Egyptian Love Poem c1500 BC
Excessive respect for the Dead body
Will hinder medical developments for many years
Sacred Body does not allow for exploration or experimentation.
General or simplistic Answer (1 Mark)
Specifically answers question with relevant example or explanation (2 – 3 Marks)
Sophisticated answer that shows an understanding of the complex forces involved. Good use of relevant examples (4 – 5 Marks)
Write a simple paragraph explaining how the following affected medicine
The Nile and Farming
Which is the most important of the 5?
List all the kinds of healers mentioned sources 1 to 5 on page 18
Answer questions 1, 5, 6 and 7 on pages 20/21
Activity on page 21
Design an advertisement for one of the treatments described on pages 20/21