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Exploring American History. Unit VII- Becoming a World Power Chapter 22 Section 3 United States and Latin America. The United States and Latin America. The Big Idea The United States expanded its role in Latin America in the early 1900s. Main Ideas

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Exploring American History

Unit VII- Becoming a World Power

Chapter 22 Section 3

United States and Latin America


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The United States and Latin America

  • The Big Idea

  • The United States expanded its role in Latin America in the early 1900s.

  • Main Ideas

  • The United States built the Panama Canal in the early 1900s.

  • Theodore Roosevelt changed U.S. policy toward Latin America.

  • Presidents Taft and Wilson promoted U.S. interests in Latin America.


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Problems and Solutions

Columbia

French Connection

Panama Canal

Purpose- Why?

Roosevelt Corollary

Building the Canal


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Main Idea 1: The United States built the Panama Canal in the early 1900s.

To build a narrow canal

  • Link the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

  • Cut 8,000 miles off the sea voyage

  • Allow U.S. Navy

The Goal


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Revolution in Panama

  • Panamanian revolutionaries

  • The United States assisted them.

  • New Panamanian government

  • $10 million plus $250,000 a year


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Problems and Solutions

Columbia

French Connection

Columbia owned Panama

Columbia had made a deal with

the French to build the canal.

U.S. offered Columbia $10

Million, but they want $30 million

Revolution for Independence in

Panama, aided by U.S.

warships- who would not let

Columbian ships land

troops.

Failed attempt- 1878 – Paid

Columbia for the rights.

Builder of Suez Canal in charge

Money problems, disease, and

construction problems.

1898- sold their rights and

equipment to the U.S. for

$40 million.

Panama Canal

Commerical Reasons:

Transportation Cost lower- 60%

All-water route is shorter.

Military Reasons- Navy needs to

be able to move from Atlantic to

Pacific Ocean for defense.

Across Panama was the shortest route.

Roosevelt Corollary

Building the Canal

Purpose- Why?


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Building the Panama Canal

  • Difficult to build

    • tropical diseases-yellow fever and malaria

    • Dr. William Gorgas

    • Working in the high mountains with explosives was dangerous.

    • Some 6,000 people died.

  • The Panama Canal opened on August 15, 1914,

  • Took ten years to complete and cost $375 million


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Panama Canal


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Roosevelt and the Canal


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Canal Construction


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Problems and Solutions

Columbia

French Connection

U.S. sends wawrships to

Panama to protect U.S. lives

Helps Panama with the

Revolution and Independence.

Panama now makes a deal with the U.S. for a 10 mile wide strip of land. $10 million and $250,000 lease per year.

Harsh working conditions, engineering and logistical problems, malaria, and yellow fever hampered construction.

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

Columbia owned Panama

Columbia had made a deal with

the French to build the canal.

U.S. offered Columbia $10

Million, but they want $30 million

Revolution for Independence in

Panama, aided by U.S.

warships- who would not let

Columbian ships land

troops.

Failed attempt- 1878 – Paid

Columbia for the rights.

Builder of Suez Canal in charge

Money problems, disease, and

construction problems.

1898- sold their rights and

equipment to the U.S. for

$40 million.

Panama Canal

Began in 1904

Expenses for the U.S.- $352

Million Total- 51 mile, locks.

34 years to build

Opened 1914- Treaty ratified 1921

80,000 workers and 30,000 deaths

Yellow Fever- Dr. Gorgas and the

Mosquito.

Columbia- $26 million

Commerical Reasons:

Transportation Cost lower- 60%

All-water route is shorter.

Military Reasons- Navy needs to

be able to move from Atlantic to

Pacific Ocean for defense.

Across Panama was the shortest route.

Roosevelt Corollary

Building the Canal

Purpose- Why?


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Building the Panama Canal

  • Identify – What nation did the Isthmus of Panama originally belong to?

  • Make Inferences- Did President Roosevelt want to go to war with Columbia? Why or why not?

  • Evaluate – What is your opinion of the importance of Dr. Gorgas’ contribution to the canal project?


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Building the Panama Canal

  • Identify – Panama City is nearest which ocean?

  • Identify Cause and Effect- In what ways did the Panama Canal affect U.S. exports?

  • Analyze – Construction of the canal cost $366,650,000. Annual shipping savings from the East coast to the West coast was $32,780,000 million. If this was the only savings, when would the canal have paid for itself?


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Main Idea 2: Theodore Roosevelt changed U.S. policy toward Latin America.

The Panama Canal allowed the United States to become more involved in Latin America.

Monroe Doctrine.

Roosevelt Corollary.

The United States became the “international police power”


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Roosevelt Corollary


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Problems and Solutions

Columbia

French Connection

U.S. sends wawrships to

Panama to protect U.S. lives

Helps Panama with the

Revolution and Independence.

Panama now makes a deal with the U.S. for a 10 mile wide strip of land. $10 million and $250,000 lease per year.

Harsh working conditions, engineering and logistical problems, malaria, and yellow fever hampered construction.

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

Columbia owned Panama

Columbia had made a deal with

the French to build the canal.

U.S. offered Columbia $10

Million, but they want $30 million

Revolution for Independence in

Panama, aided by U.S.

warships- who would not let

Columbian ships land

troops.

Failed attempt- 1878 – Paid

Columbia for the rights.

Builder of Suez Canal in charge

Money problems, disease, and

construction problems.

1898- sold their rights and

equipment to the U.S. for

$40 million.

Panama Canal

Began in 1904

Expenses for the U.S.- $352

Million Total- 51 mile, locks.

34 years to build

Opened 1914- Treaty ratified 1921

80,000 workers and 30,000 deaths

Yellow Fever- Dr. Gorgas and the

Mosquito.

Columbia- $26 million

Commerical Reasons:

Transportation Cost lower- 60%

All-water route is shorter.

Military Reasons- Navy needs to

be able to move from Atlantic to

Pacific Ocean for defense.

Across Panama was the shortest route.

American Foreign policy under

T. Roosevelt.

Addition to Monroe Doctrine.

U.S. has the right to intervene

In Latin American affairs.

International police force.

“Speak Softly and carry a big

stick.”

Great White Fleet.

Roosevelt Corollary

Building the Canal

Purpose- Why?


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Main Idea 3: Presidents Taft and Wilson promoted U.S. interests in Latin America.

  • President William Howard Taft acted to protect U.S. interests in Latin America.

    • dollar diplomacy

    • Loaned money to Nicaragua

    • Sent U.S. Marines to Nicaragua

  • Woodrow Wilson believed-moral obligation to promote democracy.

    • Often sent troops into Latin America to prevent foreign intervention or political unrest

    • Sent troops to assist Mexico’s government in the Mexican Revolution


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Dollar Diplomacy- Taft


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The Mexican Revolution

  • Mexicans revolted against harsh rule of dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910.

  • War affected U.S. interests- investments worth over $1 billion.

  • The United States entered the war.

    • 1914: U.S. Navy seized city of Veracruz

    • 1916: General John J. Pershing -Francisco “Pancho” Villa

  • In 1917, a new constitution began to bring order to Mexico.


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Pursuing Pancho Villa


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Changes in U.S. Foreign Policy

  • Washington’s Farewell Address

  • Monroe Doctrine

  • United States will defend its interests in Western Hemisphere

  • Roosevelt Corollary

  • Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy

  • United States will use economicmeans

  • Wilson and Democracy

  • The United States will promote and protect democracy in the Western Hemisphere.


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U.S. Policy Toward Latin America

  • Describe – What idea did the Monroe Doctrine express?

  • Make Inferences- What can you infer about U.S. military strength during Monroe’s presidency?

  • Evaluate – Should the U.S. have acted as a “police officer” to the region?


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U.S. Policy Toward Latin America

  • Explain – What did the U.S. get in return for lending Nicaragua $1.5 billion?

  • Contrast- Roosevelt used a show of military power to accomplish his foreign policy goals. What was the main tool used by Taft?

  • Compare – In what way was President Wilson like President Roosevelt?

  • Identify Cause and Effect – What was the cause of the Mexican Revolution?


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U.S. Policy Toward Latin America

  • Identify – Name four things in which America business leaders invested in Mexico?

  • Draw Conclusions- Why did Wilson order the navy to seize Veracruz?

  • Elaborate – What are some possible results of 120,000 Mexicans fleeing violence and immigrating to the U.S.?


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