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Fragile Bargains: Civil Conflict and Power-sharing in Africa. Scott Gates and Kaare Strøm. Fragile Bargains: Civil Conflict and Power-sharing in Africa. Scott Gates Center for the Study of Civil War, PRIO and Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU) and Kaare Strøm

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Scott Gates and Kaare Strøm

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Scott gates and kaare str m

Fragile Bargains:

Civil Conflict and Power-sharing in Africa

Scott Gates and

KaareStrøm


Fragile bargains civil conflict and power sharing in africa

Fragile Bargains:Civil Conflict and Power-sharing in Africa

Scott Gates

Center for the Study of Civil War, PRIO and

Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU)

and

Kaare Strøm

University of California, San Diego and

Center for the Study of Civil War, PRIO


The challenge of postconflict institutional design

The Challenge of Postconflict Institutional Design

  • Good Governance & Sustainable Civil Peace

    • Good governance – effective and fair provision of public goods and services

    • Credible commitments to uphold conflict resolution agreements


Power sharing as a postconflict institutional solution

Power Sharing as a Postconflict Institutional Solution

  • Involve all potential spoilers in government decision-making

  • Give all parties a stake in cooperation and provide mutual guarantees of security and basic interests

    • Reduces the threat of conflict


The logic of power sharing

The Logic of Power Sharing

  • Focus on ex postcertainty and fairness

    • Fair division of the political pie

    • Counters perceptions of bias and exclusion

    • Entice warring parties to cease fighting


Is power sharing democratic

Is Power-sharingDemocratic?

  • Przeworski’s (1991) conception of democracy:

    • ex ante uncertainty and

    • ex ante openness of democratic contestation

  • Strøm (1992) adds

    • procedural performance sensitivity

  • Ex post guarantees run counter to all three characteristics of democracy


Essence of power sharing

EssenceofPower-sharing

  • Ex postfairness over

  • Ex ante uncertainty and

  • Procedural Performance Sensitivity

  • Importance of fairness in post-conflict environments


Expanding the notion of power sharing

Expanding the Notion of Power Sharing

  • Inclusive Power sharing – mandate inclusion

  • Dispersed Power sharing – mandate constraints


Inclusive power sharing arrangements

Inclusive Power-sharing Arrangements

  • Grand (cabinet) coalitions

  • Inclusive executive or advisory councils, such as electoral commissions

  • Mutual veto arrangements

  • Proportional or broadly inclusive rules for civil service and other administrative appointments

  • Reserved executive offices for particular parties or social groups

  • Proportional representation (PR) electoral systems, especially closed-list


Dispersed power sharing arrangements

Dispersed Power-sharing Arrangements

  • Autonomous sub-national levels of government

  • Independent institutions that ban partisan representation (e.g. Judicial appointments)

  • Non-partisan electoral commissions

  • Restrict civil servants from membership in political parties

  • Separation of religious communities and the state

  • Electoral systems featuring primary elections, personal preference votes, or transferable votes


Problems with power sharing

Problems with Power Sharing

  • Spoilers

  • Rigidity

  • Transaction costs

  • Inclusion squeezes out civil society


Power sharing and ex post fairness

Power-sharing and Ex Post Fairness

  • Spoiler Problems

    • Military leaders – credible outside option

    • Splinter groups

    • Incumbents unwilling to leave office


Problems with dispersed power sharing

Problems with Dispersed Power Sharing

  • Implementation

    • Trust issues

    • Weak civil society

      • need to work to foster and develop indigenous NGOs


Power sharing in sub saharan africa

Power-sharing in Sub-SaharanAfrica

  • Problems of patrimonial societies

  • Perceptions of procedural bias and exclusion

  • Role of civil society


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