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After mid-term review EE 334. Digital electronics. NMOS inverter CMOS inverter NMOS logic gates CMOS logic gates NMOS transmission gates CMOS transmission gates Sequential logic circuits NMOS flip flop CMOS flip flop J K flip flop.

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After mid term review ee 334

After mid-term review EE 334

Digital electronics

Digital electronics

  • NMOS inverter

  • CMOS inverter

  • NMOS logic gates

  • CMOS logic gates

  • NMOS transmission gates

  • CMOS transmission gates

  • Sequential logic circuits

  • NMOS flip flop

  • CMOS flip flop

  • J K flip flop

Design is the heart of engineering. Throughout the course designing

concepts have been emphasized.

Mos digital circuits chapter 16

MOS Digital CircuitsChapter 16

  • In the late 70s as the era of LSI and VLSI began, NMOS became the fabrication technology choice.

  • Later the design flexibility and other advantages of the CMOS were realized, CMOS technology then replaced NMOS at all level of integration.

  • The small transistor size and low power dissipation of CMOS circuits, demonstration principal advantages of CMOS over NMOS circuits.

Nmos inverter

NMOS Inverter

  • For any IC technology used in digital circuit design, the basic circuit element is the logic inverter.

  • Once the operation and characterization of the inverter circuits are thoroughly understood, the results can be extended to the design of the logic gates and other more complex circuits.

After mid term review ee 334

NMOS Inverter (resistor load)

Nmos inverter with enhancement load

NMOS Inverter with Enhancement Load

  • This basic inverter consist of two enhancement-only NMOS transistors and is much more practical than the resister loaded inverter, which is thousand of times larger than a MOSFET.

Nmos inverter with enhancement load1

NMOS Inverter with Enhancement Load


Nmos inverter with depletion load

NMOS Inverter with Depletion Load

  • This is an alternate form of the NMOS inverter that uses an enhancement-depletion MOSFET load device with gate and source terminal connected.

  • This inverter has the advantage of VO= VDD, as well as more abrupt VTC transition region even though the W/L ratio for the output MOSFET is small.

  • The term depletion mode means that a channel exists even with zero gate voltage.

Vt characteristics of nmos inverter with depletion load

VT Characteristics of NMOS Inverter with Depletion Load

The Figure demonstrate in present configuration more abrupt VTC transition region can be achieved even though the W/L ratio for the output MOSFET is small.

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Transient analysis of nmos inverters

Transient Analysis of NMOS inverters

  • The source of capacitance CT2 and CT3 are the transistor input capacitances and parasitic capacitances due to interconnect lines between the inverter stages.

  • The constant current over a wide range of VDS provided by the depletion load implies that this type of inverter switch a capacitive load more rapidly than the other two types inverter configurations.

The rate at

Concept of effective width to length ratios

Concept of effective width to length ratios

Parallel combination

Series combination

For the NAND gate the effective length of the driver transistors doubles. That means the effective aspect ratio is decreased.


For the NOR gate the effective width of the drivers transistors doubles. That means the effective aspect ratio is increased.

NAND gate for more than three inputs is not attractive???

Nmos nor gate special case when all inputs are at logic 1

NMOS NOR gate: Special case when all inputs are at logic 1

When A=B=logic 1

Both driver transistors are switched into nonsaturation region

and load transistor is biased in saturation region. We have


By substituting the values of current equation we can write as,



Suppose two driver transister are identical, which implies that,



As we know VGSL=0

Also from figure VGSA=VGSB=VDD


By substituting all these parameters we can write above equation as,

(-VTNL)2 = 2(KD/KL)[2(VDD-VTND)V0-VO2)

Conclusion: The above equation suggested that when the both the driver are in conducting mode, the effectiveaspect ratio of the NOR gate is double. This further suggested that output voltage becomes slightly smaller when both inputs are high. Because higher the aspect ratio lower the output.

When all the inputs are high: design consideration!!

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Three input NAND

gate design



Three input NOR gate design considerations

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CMOS: the most abundant electronic devices on earth

  • At present, complementary MOS or CMOS has replaced NMOS at all level of integration, in both analog and digital applications.

  • The basic reason of this replacement is that the power dissipation in CMOS logic circuits is much less than in NMOS circuits, which makes CMOS very attractive.

  • Although the processing is more complicated for CMOS circuits than for NMOS circuits.

  • However, the advantages of CMOS digital circuits over NMOS circuits justify their use.

Cmos properties

CMOS properties

Cmos inverter steady state response

CMOS Inverter: Steady State Response

VOL = 0





Vout = 1

Vout = 0


Vin = 0

Vin = V DD

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NMOS in sat

PMOS in non sat

NMOS off

PMOS in non sat

NMOS in sat

PMOS in sat

NMOS in non sat

PMOS in sat

NMOS in nonsat

PMOS off

Complete voltage transfer characteristics,

CMOS inverter

Cmos inverter design consideration

CMOS inverter design consideration

  • The CMOS inverter usually design to have,

    (i) VTN =|VTP|

    (ii) K´n/2(W/L)=K´p/2 (W/L)

    But K´n>K´p (because n>p)

    How equation (ii) can be satisfied?

    This can achieved if width of the PMOS is made two or three times than that of the NMOS device. This is very important in order to provide a symmetrical VTC, results in wide noise margin.

Cmos inverter vtc

CMOS inverter VTC

  • Increase W of PMOS kp increases VTC moves to right



  • Increase W of NMOS kn increases VTC moves to left




  • For VTH = Vcc/2 kn = kp Wn 2Wp



Effects of v it adjustment

Effects of VIt adjustment

  • Result from changing kp/kn ratio:

    • Inverter threshold VIt Vcc/2

    • Rise and fall delays unequal

    • Noise margins not equal

  • Reasons for changing inverter threshold

    • Want a faster delay for one type of transition (rise/fall)

    • Remove noise from input signal: increase one noise margin at expense of the other

Power dissipation

Power Dissipation

  • Although there isn't power dissipation in the CMOS inverter when the output is either at logic 0 or 1. However, during switching of the CMOS inverter from low logic 0 to logic 1, current flows and power is dissipated.

  • Usually CMOS inverter and logic circuit are used to drive other MOS devices by connecting a capacitor across the output of a CMOS inverter.

  • This capacitor must be charged and discharged during the switching cycle.

Cmos inverter power

CMOS inverter power

  • Power has three components

    • Static power: when input isn’t switching

    • Dynamic capacitive power: due to charging and discharging of load capacitance

    • Dynamic short-circuit power: direct current from VDD to Gnd when both transistors are on

Cmos inverter static power

CMOS inverter static power

  • Static power consumption:

    • Static current: in CMOS there is no static current as long as Vin < VTN or Vin > VDD+VTP

    • Leakage current: determined by “off” transistor

    • Influenced by transistor width, supply voltage, transistor threshold voltages









Dynamic power dissipation and total energy stored in the cmos device

Dynamic Power Dissipation and Total Energy Stored in the CMOS Device

Case II: when the input is high and out put is low:

During switching all the energy stored in the load capacitor is dissipated in the NMOS device because NMOS is conducting and PMOS is in cutoff mode. The energy dissipated in the NMOS inverter can be written as,

The total energy dissipated during one switching cycle is,

The power dissipated in terms pf frquency can be written as

This implied that the power dissipation in the CMOS inverter is directly proportional to switching frequency and VDD2

Dynamic capacitive power

Dynamic capacitive power

  • Formula for dynamic power:

  • Observations

    • Does not (directly) depend on device sizes

    • Does not depend on switching delay

    • Applies to general CMOS gate in which:

      • Switched capacitances are lumped into CL

      • Output swings from Gnd to VDD

      • Input signal approximated as step function

      • Gate switches with frequency f

Dynamic short circuit power

Dynamic short-circuit power

  • Short-circuit current flows from VDD to Gnd when both transistors are on saturation mode

  • Plot on VTC curve:

Imax: depends on saturation current of devices







Inverter power consumption

Inverter power consumption

  • Total power consumption

Power reduction

Power reduction

  • Reducing dynamic capacitive power:

    • Lower the voltage!

      • Quadratic effect on dynamic power

    • Reduce capacitance

      • Short interconnect lengths

      • Drive small gate load (small gates, small fan-out)

    • Reduce frequency

      • Lower clock frequency -

      • Lower signal activity

Power reduction1

Power reduction

  • Reducing short-circuit current:

    • Fast rise/fall times on input signal

    • Reduce input capacitance

    • Insert small buffers to “clean up” slow input signals before sending to large gate

  • Reducing leakage current:

    • Small transistors (leakage proportional to width)

    • Lower voltage

Concept of noise margins

Concept of Noise Margins


NML=VIL-VOL (noise margin for low input)

NMH=VOH-VIH (noise margin for high input)

NML=VIL-VOLU (noise margin for low input)

NMH=VOHU - VIH (noise margin for high input)

Cmos logic circuits


CMOS Logic Circuits

Large scale integrated CMOS logic circuits such as watched, calculators, and microprocessors are constructed by using basic CMOS NOR and NAND gates. Therefore, understanding of these basic gates is very important for the designing of very large scale integrated (VLSI) logic circuits.

Cmos nor gate



CMOS NOR gate can be constructed by using two parallel NMOS devices and two series PMOS transistors as shown in the figure. In the CMOS NOR gate the output is at logic 1 when all inputs are low. For all other possible inputs, output is low or at logic 0.

Design considerations of cmos nor and nand symmetrical gate

Design considerations of CMOS NOR and NAND symmetrical gate?

For asymmetrical case switching time is longer

  • In order to obtained symmetrical switching times for the high-to-low and low-to-high output transitions, the effective conduction (design) parameters of the composite PMOS and composite NMOS device must be equal. For the CMOS NOR gate we can write as,


    By recalling effective channel width and effective channel length concept we can effective conduction parameter for NMOS and PMOS for a CMOS NOR as,

    Since K´n~2K´p

Why we need



For NAND gate:


Transmission gates


Transmission Gates

  • Characteristics of NMOS transmission gate. Dynamic and static conditions.

  • Characteristics of CMOS Transmission gate.

    • In CMOS logic gate that a logic ‘1’ is transmitted unattenuated through the CMOS transmission gate in contrast to the NMOS transmission gate.

    • Sequential Logic circuits; Characteristics of Dynamic Shift Registers and CMOS dynamic shift register.

Characteristics of nmos transmission gate




Characteristics of NMOS transmission gate

If =VDD, VI=VDD, and initially, the output V0 is 0 and

capacitance CL is fully discharged.

Under these conditions, the terminal ‘a ‘acts as the drain because its bias is VDD, and terminal ‘b’ acts as the source because its bias is 0.

The gate to source voltage can be written as

VGS=-VO or


As CL charges up and Vo increases, the gate to source voltage decreases. When the gate to source voltage VGS become equal to threshold voltage VTN, the capacitance stop charging and current goes to zero.

This implies that the

VO=VO(max) when VGS=VTN


VO(max) = VDD-VTN

This implies that output voltage never will be equal to VDD. ; rather it will be lower by VTN.

This is one of the disadvantage of an NMOS transmission gate when VI=high

Why nmos transmission gate does not remain in a static condition

Why NMOS transmission gate does not remain in a static condition?

  • The reverse leakage current due to reverse bias between terminal b and ground begins to discharge the capacitor, and the circuit does not remain in a static condition.





Cmos transmission gate

CMOS Transmission Gate

  • A CMOAS transmission gate can be constructed by parallel combination of NMOS and PMOS transistors, with complementary gate signals.

  • The main advantage of the CMOS transmission gate compared to NMOS transmission gate is to allow the input signal to be transmitted to the output without the threshold voltage attenuation.

CMOS transmission gate

Characteristics of a cmos transmission gate cont




Characteristics of a CMOS Transmission gate (Cont.)


    the NMOS transmission gate cuts

    off and IDN=0.

    However, PMOS transistor

    continue to conduct, because

    VGSP of the PMOS is a constant

    (VGSP=VDD). In PMOS transistor

    IDP=0, when VSDP=0, which would be

    possible only, if,

    VO = VI = 5V

    This implies that a logic ‘1’ is

    transmitted unattenuated through

    the CMOS transmission gate in

    contrast to the NMOS transmission


NMOS transmission gate

Cmos transmission gate remains in a dynamic condition

CMOS transmission gate remains in a dynamic condition.

  • If VO=VDD, then NMOS substrate to terminal ‘b’ pn junction is reverse biased and capacitor CL can discharge.

  • If VO=0, then the PMOS terminal c-to-substrate pn junction is reverse biased and capacitance CL can be charge to a positive voltage.

  • This implies that the output high or low of CMOS transmission gate circuit do not remain constant with time (dynamic behavior).

Sequential logic circuits

Sequential Logic circuits

  • The logic circuits considered thus far are called combinational logic circuits. Their output depend only on the present value of input. This implies that these circuit do not have memory.

  • Another class of the logic circuit that incorporate memory are called sequential logic circuits; that is, their output depend not only the present value of the input, but also on the previous history of inputs. Shift registers and flip-flops are typical examples of such circuits.

Nmos dynamic shift registers

NMOS Dynamic Shift Registers

  • A shift register can be constructed by the combination of transmission gates and inverters.

  • If VI=VDD and 1=VDD, then a logic 1=VDD-VTN would exist at VO1.

  • The CL charges through MN1.

    As VO1 goes high, VO2 goes low.

    If 2 is high low will transmitted through MN2 and VO4 would be at logic 1. Thus logic 1 shifted from input to output.

In shift register the input signal is transmitted, or shifted, from the input to the output during one clock cycle.

Cmos dynamic shift registers

CMOS Dynamic Shift Registers

  • The operation of this CMOS shift register is similar to the NMOS register except for the voltage levels.

  • For example, when vI=1=VDD. Then vO1=VDD and vO2=0. when 2 goes high, then vo3 switch to zero, vo4=vDD.

  • Thus input signal is shifted to the output during one clock cycle.

Figure 16.70

Cmos r s flip flop

CMOS R-S Flip-Flop

  • The operation sequence of CMOS R-S flip flop is same as NMOS.

  • For example: If S = logic 1 and R = logic 0, then MN1, is turned on, Mp1, is cut off, and

  • goes low.

  • With = R = logic 0, then both MN3 and MN4 are cut off, both MP3 and Mp4 are biased in a conducting state so that the output Q goes high.

  • With Q = logic 1, MN2 is biased on, Mp2 is biased off, and the flip-flop is in a set condition.

  • When S goes low, MN1, turns off, but MN2 remains conducting, so the state of the flip-flop does not change.

Static d type flip flop

Static D-type Flip-Flop

  • A D-type flip-flop is used to provide a delay. The logic bit on the D input is transferred to the output at the next clock pulse.

When the CMOS transmission gate turn off (=0), the pn junction

in the MN1 transmission gate transistor is reverse biased.

Static vs dynamic storage

Static vs Dynamic Storage

  • Static storage

    • preserve state as long as the power is on

    • have positive feedback (regeneration) with an internal connection between the output and the input

    • useful when updates are infrequent (clock gating)

  • Dynamic storage

    • store state on parasitic capacitors

    • only hold state for short periods of time (milliseconds)

    • require periodic refresh

    • usually simpler, so higher speed and lower power

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After mid term review ee 334

Close loop

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V0=V1-i2R2=0 - (VI/R1)R2

i1 = i2

If the op amp open loop gain is finite non ideal op amp

If the op amp open loop gain is finite (non ideal op amp)

After mid term review ee 334

i1=VI/R1, this current also flow through the capacitor

, causing charge to accumulate on VC.

At time t, the charge Q at the capacitance equal to


Because i=Q/t and the voltage across

the capacitor is


Because Q=CV. If initial voltage (t=0) on C is denoted VC

Now the output voltage VO=-VC(t)

In terms of the voltage

Thus the circuit provides an output voltage that is proportional to time

integral of the input.

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We know the current I is the rate of change of charge

i=dQ/dt, also Q=CV

Since A is a virtual ground

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There are number of ways to solve this problem; perhaps

the easiest is using the principle of superposition and virtual short concept.

To apply superposition we first reduce VI2=0

What is the condition under which this circuit will act as a difference amplifier

What is the condition under which this circuit will act as a difference amplifier?

Let VI1=VI2


Which is clearly that of a difference amplifier

with a gain of R2/R1

Passive and active filters

Passive and active filters

  • Filters are building blocks of communication and instrumentations.

  • The oldest technology based on inductors and capacitors are called passive LC filters, which are incompatible with any of the modern techniques for assembling electronic systems.

  • Active-RC filters utilize op amp together with resistors and capacitors.

  • At present, the most viable approach for realizing fully integrated monolithic filters is the switch capacitance techniques.

Active filters

Active filters

Uses of the filters

Uses of the filters

  • Some of the uses are listed below:

  • in electronic power supply ripple smoothing

  • as tuned circuits in RF stages

  • for selection of particular sideband as in SSB transmitters

  • for harmonic frequency suppression in transmitters

  • As wave trap for eliminating undesirable signal from radio and TV


  • for improving high and low frequency response in video amplifier

  • for restricting audio frequency band pass in SSB transmitters

  • For eliminating undesirable frequency from motors, generators and other electrical and electronic equipment.

One pole active filters

One pole active filters

  • Usually, passive filters suffers from loading effects, substantially reducing the maximum gain from the unity.

  • Loading effect can be reduced by using active filters.

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After mid term review ee 334


After mid term review ee 334

above equation

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Basic principle of the switched-capacitor filter technique. (a) Active-RC integrator. (b) Switched-capacitor integrator. (c) Two-phase clock (nonoverlapping). (d) During f1, C1 charges up to the current value of vi and then, during f2, discharges into C2.

After mid term review ee 334

  • An electronic oscillator may be define in any one of the following four ways:

  • It is a circuit which convert dc energy into ac energy at a very high frequency

  • It is an electronic source of alternating current or voltage having sine, square or sawtooth or pulse shapes

  • It is circuit which generates an ac output signals without requiring any externally applied input signal.

  • It is an unstable amplifier.

Classification of oscillators

Classification of Oscillators

  • Electronic oscillators may be broadly divided into following two groups:

  • sinusoidal (or harmonic) oscillators-which produce an output having sine wave form

    ii) non- sinusoidal (or relaxation) oscillators-they produce an output which has square, rectangular or sawtooth wave form, employ circuit building blocks known as multivibrators.

After mid term review ee 334


After mid term review ee 334

The oscillation frequency of the phase shift amplifier is given by

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