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1. Chapter 10 Kinship and Descent
2. What We Will Learn Why have cultural anthropologists spent so much time studying kinship?
What are the various functions of descent groups?
What are the different ways in which cultures categorize kin?
Why is it important to know something about the kinship systems in other cultures?
3. Kinship Defined Kinship refers to the relationshipsfound in all societiesthat are based on blood or marriage.
Relationships based on blood and marriage are culturally recognized by all societies.
4. Kinship Defined Those to whom we are related through birth or blood, are our consanguineal relatives.
Those to whom we are related through marriage are our affinal relatives.
Fictive kinship refers to relationships among individuals who recognize kinship obligations although the relationships are not based on either consanguineal or affinal ties.
5. Kinship Cultural anthropologists generally have studied societies in which kinship activities play an important role.
This Tibetan family includes three generations.
6. Parenthood Parenthood as defined by this Western family is very different from the Zumbaguan definition of parenthood.
7. Question ________ refers to relationships found in all societies.
8. Answer: d Kinship refers to relationships found in all societies.
9. Question Those who are related to us by blood are referred to as:
10. Answer: d Those who are related to us by blood are referred to as consanguineal kin.
11. Partible Paternity The Bari of Venezuela believe in partible paternity, the idea that a child can have more than one biological father.
12. Functions of Kinship Systems Vertical function - provides social continuity by binding together a number of successive generations.
Horizontal function - solidify or tie together a society across a single generation through marriage.
13. Kinship Diagrams All kinship diagrams are viewed from the reference of EGO, the person from whose point of view we are tracing the relationship.
14. Kinship Diagrams - References Fathers sister (FZ)
Fathers sisters husband (FZH)
Fathers brothers wife (FBW)
Fathers brother (FB)
Mothers sisters husband (MZH) Mothers sister (MZ)
Mothers brother (MB)
Mothers brothers wife (MBW)
Fathers sisters son (FZS)
Fathers sisters daughter (FZD)
Fathers brothers son (FBS)
15. Kinship Diagram Symbols
16. Generic Kinship Diagram
17. Principles of Kinship Classification Generation
Lineality Versus Collaterality
Consanguineal Versus Affinal Kin
Sex of the Connecting Relative
Side of the Family
18. Lineality Versus Collaterality Lineality
Kin related in a single line such as son, father, and grandfather.
Kin relations traced through a linking relative.
19. Descent Groups Relatives who live their lives in close proximity to one another.
Have a strong sense of identity.
Often share communally held property.
Provide economic assistance to one another.
Engage in mutual civic and religious ceremonies.
20. Functions of Descent Groups Mechanism for inheriting property and political office.
Structure primary political units.
21. Rules of Descent: Two Types Unilateral
Trace their ancestry through mothers line or fathers line, but not both (60%).
Includes double descent, ambilineal descent, and bilateral descent.
22. Patrilineal Descent In a patrilineal descent system, a person is connected to relatives of both sexes related through males only.
23. Patrilineal Descent Most common unilineal descent group.
A man, his children, his brothers children, and his sons children are all members of the same descent group.
Females must marry outside their patrilineages.
A womans children belong to the husbands lineage rather than her own.
24. Patrilineal Descent This Kikuyu family of Kenya has a patrilineal descent system.
25. Matrilineal Descent Groups A woman, her siblings, her children, her sisters children, and her daughters children.
15% of the unilineal descent groups found among contemporary societies including:
Native Americans (such as Navajo, Cherokee, and Iroquois)
Truk and Trobrianders of the Pacific
Bemba, Ashanti, and Yao of Africa
26. Matrilineal Descent In a matrilineal descent system, a person is connected to kin of both sexes related through females only.
27. Matrilineal Descent These Zuni of New Mexico practice matrilineal descent.
28. Matriarchy The rule of domination of women over men.
29. Differences Between Patrilineal and Matrilineal Descent Groups
30. Differences Between Patrilineal and Matrilineal Descent Groups
31. Differences Between Patrilineal and Matrilineal Descent Groups
32. Question While matrilineal descent systems occur, it is important not to confuse them with _________________ , a situation whereby women have greater authority and decision-making prerogatives than men.
33. Answer: matriarchy While matrilineal descent systems occur, it is important not to confuse them with matriarchy, a situation whereby women have greater authority and decision-making prerogatives than men.
34. Types of Unilineal Descent Groups Lineages
35. Lineage Unilineal descent group whose members can trace their line of descent to a common ancestor.
The process that takes place within a lineage whereby small subdivisions of a lineage will oppose one another in some social situations but will coalesce and become allies in other social situations.
36. Lineage Segmentation
37. Clans Unilineal descent groups, usually comprising more than ten generations, consisting of members who claim a common ancestry even though they cannot trace step-by-step their exact connection to a common ancestor.
Unilineal descent groups composed of a number of related clans.
38. Moieties Complementary descent groups that result from the division of a society into two halves.
39. Corporate Nature ofUnilineal Descent Groups Lineage members see themselves as members of the group rather than individuals.
Large numbers of family must approve of marriages.
40. Corporate Nature ofUnilineal Descent Groups Property is regulated by the group, rather than by the individual.
If a member of a lineage assaults a member of another lineage, the assaulter and the group are held accountable.
The kinship group provides security and protection for individual members.
41. Cognatic Descent Groups A form of descent traced through both females and males.
Approximately 40% of the worlds societies.
42. Types of Cognatic Descent Double descent
Individuals receive some rights and obligations from the fathers side of the family and others from the mothers side.
Affiliates a person to a kin group through either the male or the female line.
Individuals equally emphasize their mothers kin and their fathers kin.
43. World Distribution of Kinship Systems
44. Kinship Classification Systems Eskimo
45. Eskimo System 1/10th of the worlds societies
Associated with bilateral descent.
Emphasizes the nuclear family by using separate terms (mother, father, sister, brother) that are not used outside the nuclear family.
46. Eskimo Kinship System
47. Hawaiian System Found in 1/3 of the societies in the world.
Uses a single term for all relatives of the same sex and generation:
A persons father, fathers brother, and mothers brother are all referred to as father.
In EGOs generation, the only distinction is based on sex - male cousins are as brothers, female cousins as sisters.
Nuclear family members are roughly equivalent to more distant kin.
48. Hawaiian System
49. Iroquois System EGOs father and fathers brother are called by the same term, mothers brother is called by a different term.
EGOs mother and mothers sister are called by one term, a different term is used for EGOs fathers sister.
EGOs siblings are given the same term as parallel cousins.
50. Iroquois System
51. Omaha System Emphasizes patrilineal descent.
EGOs father and fathers brother are called by the same term, and EGOs mother and mothers sister are called by the same term.
On the mothers side of the family, there is a merging of generations.
That merging of generations does not occur on EGOs fathers side of the family.
52. Omaha System
53. Crow System Concentrates on matrilineal rather than patrilineal descent.
Mirror image of the Omaha system.
The fathers side of the family merges generations.
On EGOs mothers side of the family, which is the important descent group, generational distinctions are recognized.
54. Crow System
55. Family History and Immigration Immigrants are processed at Ellis Island in New York, the initial point of entry into the United States in the first half of the 20th century.
Information technology allows us to search immigration records to learn more about our family histories.
56. Reproductive Technologies New reproductive technologies are changing the way we think about kinship.