Draws Conclusions Makes and Confirms Inferences.
Makes and Confirms Inferences
“…All learning depends on the ability to question, reason, formulate ideas, pose hypotheses, and exchange ideas with others.” -A. Browne (1996)
Reads text and determines the main idea or essential message; identifies relevant supporting details and facts, and arranges events in chronological order.
(LA.A.2.2.1 Grades 3-5)
Draw Conclusions: uses background knowledge and text information to form an
opinion regarding information not given in a text; specifically able to draw conclusion, when, why, or something happened or who was involved in an action.
Infers: combines prior knowledge and information found in texts to predict or make a judgment.
Good readers often make inferences or draw conclusions based on the information they have. If they see a big tent and there are clowns standing outside, they would probably think that there is a circus in town. What they think is happening may not always be correct, but they make the best guesses-or inferences-they can from the information they have.
A reader makes logical connections to their
personal trove of background experiences and
knowledge to determine what the author is
implying. A proficient reader makes inferences
by “reading between the lines” to match his or
her experiences and knowledge with relevant
clues or hints provided by the author.
“It seemed that the pitch had barely left the
southpaw’s hand when the ballpark
resounded with a loud thwack. Morgan
dropped his head in dejection as Ramirez
began to trot the bases.”
What just happened here? What is the author implying without directly stating it? What clues did you use to figure things out?
A reader’s conclusions make up an overall sense of what a reading selection means. After making some inferences, readers look for connections among their inferences and observations. The connections lead to conclusions. It’s like seeing the big picture after putting the puzzle pieces together!
What might you conclude if you read a report that pointed out that the bald eagle is listed as an endangered animal in 43 states?
Conclusions might include 1.) that the bald eagle is considered worth protecting or 2.) that the bald eagle is in danger of dying out.
The report also explains the many reasons for the deaths of the bald eagle as well. What might you conclude from this information?
Conclusions might include 1.) that people have been investigating the causes of deaths or 2.) that correcting the problem will probably not be easy.
More Practice clues for each type?
Read the story and answer the questions by drawing conclusions
Maria opened her eyes and ran to the window. No, she thought, she hadn't been dreaming. Everything in front of her eyes looked unfamiliar. Instead of the bright warm sun, there were gray, cold-looking skies. There was harsh, loud noise everywhere. And she could see no warm, blue-green sea off in the distance. She thought to herself, "What is this strange new world I have come to?Suddenly, Maria heard her aunt's voice calling her. She rushed quickly to the other room. She hoped that seeing her aunt would make her feel more at home here in the United States."Well, Maria," her aunt asked, "how did you sleep your first night here?" She spoke a little slowly so that Maria wouldn't have trouble understanding her.Maria waited a moment to answer. She wanted to say everything correctly. Soon she would be in school, where she could work on her English--she wanted to be the best in her class, just as she had been back home! "Very well," she said, smiling in surprise at how clear her words sounded.
Questioning and inferring
work in tandem to enhance the understanding of text.
-Harvey and Goudvis
Strategies That Work
Finish the sentence stems with statements that you could use with topics or content that you are reading in any subject..
Support your answer with information and details from the passage.
Effective questioning thought, she hadn't been dreaming. Everything in front of her eyes looked unfamiliar. Instead of the bright warm sun, there were gray, cold-looking skies. There was harsh, loud noise everywhere. And she could see no warm, blue-green sea off in the distance. She thought to herself, "What is this strange new world I have come to?
distinguish fact from
determine bias, &
check the validity of evidence
when asked to…
brainstorm new ideas,
think up solutions to problems,
weigh pros &cons,
make decisions, &
Think Analytically!Learn to Think…Think to Learn
Before Reading (Prediction, Activate Schema): Make predictions or “educated guesses” about what’s to come in a text by looking at the title, subtitles, headings, illustrations, graphics and captions.
During Reading (Inference):Revise predictions based on asking yourself “What new information did I find?” and “How should I change my predictions to make them more accurate?” Then ask yourself “What new predictions can I make?”
After Reading (Conclusion): Confirm all predictions by finding and citing evidence and details from the entire passage.
“Proficient readers use images to draw conclusions, to create distinct and unique interpretations of the text, to recall details significant to the text, and to recall a text after it has been read.”
~ Ellin Keene, Mosaic of Thought
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From the authors of Strategies That Work by Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis this website has its all: Definitions, Posters, and Lesson Web Resources and Lessons. You can also select the best level for your students by choosing lesson resources by 1) Primary,
2) Intermediate, or 2) Upper.