Chapter 35 section 2 the challenge of democracy in africa
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Chapter 35 section 2: The Challenge of Democracy in Africa. As the recent histories of Nigeria and South Africa show, ethnic and racial conflicts can hinder democracy Do Now: Read story and answer questions. Colonial Rule Limits Democracy. European Policies Cause Problems

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Chapter 35 section 2: The Challenge of Democracy in Africa

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Chapter 35 section 2 the challenge of democracy in africa

Chapter 35 section 2:The Challenge of Democracy in Africa

As the recent histories of Nigeria and South Africa show, ethnic and racial conflicts can hinder democracy

Do Now: Read story and answer questions


Colonial rule limits democracy

Colonial Rule Limits Democracy

European Policies Cause Problems

  • Borders of colonies in Africa ignore ethnic and cultural divisions

  • As a result, national identity is slow to develop in Africa

  • Colonial rule produces economic problems

  • Colonial rule also disrupts family and community life

  • Post-independence governments fragile and vulnerable to military coups


Nigeria

A Land of Many People

Nigeria has people from three different ethnic groups- each with own state

Country adopts a federal system- state and central government share power

War with Biafra

In 1960s, country torn by ethnic fighting

Military imposes martial law- temporary military rule

In 1967 eastern region leaves Nigeria, forms new country of Biafra

War ends in 1970 with Biafra defeated and Nigeria reunited

Nigeria


Nigeria s nation building

Nigeria’s Nation Building

  • In 1970s and 1980s military tries to create stable federal system

  • General Sani Abacha overturns election results of 1993 and takes power

  • He punishes dissents- government opponents

  • In 1999, civilian government finally gains power


Civilian presidents in nigeria

Civilian Presidents in Nigeria

  • Obasanjo tries to build strong, unified Nigeria by ending corruption

  • Promotes idea of forgiveness of Nigeria’s debt to rebuild country

  • Umaru Yar’Adua elected president in 2007

  • Militant group threatened Nigeria’s oil exports and economic growth

  • Yar’ Adua died in May 2010 due to illness and next election is early 2011

  • Civil rights and other problems have gotten better since the Obansanjo controls the government


South africa under apartheid

South Africa Under Apartheid

  • South Africa gains independence in 1931; white minority rules

  • In 1948, National Party enacts apartheid- separation of races

  • Government sets up reserves, called homelands, for blacks in 1959


Blacks protest

Blacks Protest

  • In 1912, blacks form African National Congress (ANC) to protest

  • Nelson Mandela- ANC leader imprisoned for 27 years

  • Protests rise in 1970s and 1980s, sometimes resulting in violence


Struggle for democracy

Struggle for Democracy

  • Religious leader Desmond Tutu urges economic pressure on government

  • He asks other countries not to trade with South Africa

  • In 1990, FW de Klerk legalizes ANC and frees Nelson Mandela from prison

  • Parliament repeals apartheid laws and grants rights to black

  • De Klerk agrees to elections open to all races to be held in 1994


South africa 1990s present

South Africa 1990s- present

  • In 1994, ANC wins majority of Parliament and Mandela is elected President

  • In 1996, new constitution is adopted giving equal rights to all

  • In 1999, Thabo Mbeki elected President

    • Faces challenges: high crime, unemployment and rampant poverty

    • Hopes to increase trade with other countries

    • Major problem: high number of people with AIDS

  • elected Jacob Zuma president in 2009


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