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Increasing the Efficiency of UPS Systems – And Proving It!. Richard L. Sawyer Director, Critical Facilities Assurance EYP Mission Critical Facilities www.eypmcf.com. The Problem. 60% of US Energy bill is in buildings.

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Increasing the efficiency of ups systems and proving it

Increasing the Efficiency of UPS Systems – And Proving It!

Richard L. Sawyer

Director, Critical Facilities Assurance

EYP Mission Critical Facilities

www.eypmcf.com


The problem
The Problem

  • 60% of US Energy bill is in buildings.

  • Energy consumed by data centers more than doubled between 2000 and 2005 – J. Koomey, Stanford University.

  • U.S. Data center electrical bills totaled $2.7 Billion in 2005.

  • A single, moderate size server in a data center has the same carbon foot print as a SUV that gets 15 MPG (R.Muirhead, Data Center Journal).

  • A single rack with 6 Blade Server units consumes as much power as 3 kitchen electric ranges (24-30Kw)!



21 st century computing blade servers
21st Century Computing – Blade Servers

Power = Up to 6 kW per Blade chassis or 30 kW per rack


Where does the power go
Where does the power go?

UPS = 18%

Actual IT Load is 30% of Power Consumed

APC-MGE: Neil Rasmussen


Lightning Strikes

Faulty Switchgear

Storms

High Winds

Falling Trees

Traffic Accidents

OUTAGE

INPUT POWER

FROM

UTILITY/GENERATOR

Faulty Switchgear

Heavy Loads

Poor Distribution

SAG

SWELL

Poor Distribution

UPS

OUTPUT POWER

Switching Operations

Poor Filters

Faulty Load Eq.

Static Electricity

RF Interference

SPIKE

DISTORTION

Harmonics/

Electronic Loads

Poor Distribution

PURPOSES OF UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY

1.Maintain clean, uninterrupted power during utility events

2.Power Conditioning

3.Isolation from other electrical loads

4.Separately Derived Source of Power

FREQUENCY

Major Utility

Problems

Faulty

Generator


Strategy to improve ups efficiency
Strategy to Improve UPS Efficiency

  • Technology: Make the units more efficient.

  • Selection: Size the units more closely to the load.

  • Application: Use redundancy only where it is needed.

IBM Blue Gene 1.2 Megawatt


Understanding ups inefficiency factors

Understanding UPS Inefficiency Factors

No-Load Losses

Proportional Losses

Square-Law Losses

Paying the price to process power!



Typical UPS efficiency curve

Below 30% loadefficiency drops rapidly

Nominal 92% efficiency only applies when UPS load is over 70%

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

UPSEfficiency

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

UPS Load% of full power rating


13.5 KV

13.5 KV

2(N+1) System

480

480

Each side must have capacity to support both critical loads but maintain redundancy.

Total load cannot exceed capacity of 2 UPS Modules.

EFFECTIVE DESIGN LOAD = 33% of total capacity, maximum.

Primary Bus A

Primary Bus B

UPS

UPS

UPS

UPS

UPS

UPS

Bypass A

Bypass B

Load Bank

Load Bank

UPS Output 2A

UPS Output 2B

Subsystem Bus A

Subsystem Bus B

Critical Load Bus A

Critical Load Bus B

Static

Switch

Static

Switch

PDU

PDU

Critical Load


Aggregate ups power losses

EFFICIENCY

UPS internal power consumption (loss)

93.4%

93.4%

Proportional and square losses

93.3%

}

93.3%

}

Power delivered to load

93.1%

93.1%

92.8%

92.8%

No-load portion of loss stays constant from full load all the way down to zero load

92.4%

92.4%

91.8%

91.8%

Many data centers

90.7%

90.7%

operate in this range

operate in this range

88.9%

88.9%

85.5%

85.5%

76.4%

76.4%

No-load loss is present even at no load

0%

0%

{

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

UPS load

% of full power rating

Aggregate UPS Power Losses


No load losses
No Load Losses

  • Definition: The power consumed by the UPS at 0% load just to keep the UPS operating.

  • Sources – Transformers, capacitors, logic systems, fans, communications cards.

  • Sometimes referred to as “tare”, “constant”, “fixed”, “shunt” and “parallel” losses.

  • Most significant inefficiency: Accounts for up to 40% of UPS losses.


Proportional losses
Proportional Losses

  • Definition: The power needed to process more power through the UPS.

  • Sources – Switching losses, capacitor and inductor impedance, internal resistance

  • Proportional losses increase as the output load the UPS support increases.

  • Proportional losses are directly related to the topology (internal design) of the UPS.


Square law losses
Square - Law Losses

  • Definition: Losses related to the amount of current flowing through the UPS.

  • Power is the result of voltage times the current.

  • Current does the work, and power is lost as the amount of current flowing increases, by a square factor, hence “square – law losses”.

  • Power loss is in the form of heat.

  • Square-Law losses are 1% to 4% at higher load levels.


Power loss component graph

SQUARE-LAW loss

TOTAL LOSS

Electrical Loss in kW

(Waste due to inefficiency)

PROPORTIONALloss

NO-LOAD loss

No Load

Full Load

10%

30%

50%

70%

90%

Equipment Loading

Power Loss Component Graph


Two devices with same nameplate efficiency can have significantly different losses in actual operating range, due to the particular characteristics of their PROPORTIONAL and NO-LOAD losses

Same nameplate efficiency (full-load loss)

Example: Two different 100kW UPSs with 92% nameplate (full-load) efficiency

10kW

Loading where most data centers operate

Electrical Loss

(Waste due to inefficiency)

UPS A TOTAL LOSS

UPS B has higher proportional loss (steeper line) but lower no-load loss

UPS B TOTAL LOSS

UPS A No-load loss

UPS B No-load loss

But different performance at actual operating load

0kW

No Load

Full Load

10%

30%

50%

70%

90%

Equipment Loading


One device can even have WORSE nameplate efficiency than another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss

Example: Two 100kW UPSs with same 92% nameplate (full-load) efficiency

UPS A has better nameplate efficiency (lower full-load loss)

10kW

Loading where most data centers operate

B

A

Electrical Loss

(Waste due to inefficiency)

UPS A TOTAL LOSS

UPS B has higher proportional loss (steeper line) but lower no-load loss

UPS B TOTAL LOSS

UPS A No-load loss

UPS B No-load loss

But UPS B performs better at actual operating load

0kW

No Load

Full Load

10%

30%

50%

70%

90%

Equipment Loading


Improving efficiency

Improving Efficiency another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss

Technology

Selection

Application


Improving efficiency fixing no load loss
Improving Efficiency – Fixing No-Load Loss another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss

Effect of lowering NO-LOAD LOSS

Example: 100kW UPS with 92% full-load efficiency

10kW

Nameplateefficiency goes from 92% to94.5%

Same improvement in nameplate efficiency

Loading where most data centers operate

Total loss before improvement

Electrical Loss

(Waste due to inefficiency)

Total loss after improvement

Electric bill savings

OriginalNo-load loss

But waste is roughly cut in half in actual operating range

Lowered No-load loss

0kW

No Load

Full Load

10%

30%

50%

70%

90%

Equipment Loading


Improving efficiency fixing proportional loss
Improving Efficiency – Fixing Proportional Loss another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss

Effect of lowering PROPORTIONAL LOSS

Example: 100kW UPS with 92% full-load efficiency

10kW

Nameplateefficiency goes from 92% to94.5%

Loading where most data centers operate

Total loss before improvement

Electrical Loss

(Waste due to inefficiency)

Total loss after improvement

Electric bill savings

(UnchangedNo-load loss)

Waste is reduced by 10-20% in actual operating range

0kW

No Load

Full Load

10%

30%

50%

70%

90%

Equipment Loading


Application efficiency zoned redundancy

Rack Based UPS Systems as needed for 2N redundancy another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss

M

HEAT

REJECT

S

E

C

U

R

UPS

UPS

UPS

UPS

F

I

R

E

Cold

Aisle

Hot

Aisle

Cold

Aisle

Hot

Aisle

Cold

Aisle

CRAC

CRAC

CRAC

CRAC

EPO

pdu

pdu

pdu

pdu

HEAT

REJECT

Central UPS for one “N” side, scalable, modular system

M

UPS

CRAC

Site Availability – 99.995%

SYSTEM

MONITOR

Battery

$2,000+ per square foot

WEBLINK

Application Efficiency – Zoned Redundancy


Commissioning ups systems

Commissioning UPS Systems another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss

Availability

The Cost of Downtime

The Value of Commssioning


Data center tier ratings
Data Center Tier Ratings another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss

* The Uptime Institute


Maximizing availability
Maximizing Availability another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss

Total Time - Downtime

Availability =

Total Time

  • The only variable is Downtime

  • Downtime sources: Equipment Failures, Human Error, External Causes, Maintenance

Cost of Downtime drives the Value of CFA!


What does Downtime Cost? another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss


The Reliability Curve for equipment (IEEE) another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss

Infant Mortality Period

End-of- Life Period

High Probability of Downtime

Failure Rate

Time (Data Center Life Span)

“The Bathtub Curve”


The another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD lossValue of Commissioning

Infant Mortality Period

End-of- Life Period

Minimize

Failures

Time


Commissioning ups systems1
Commissioning UPS Systems another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss

  • Verify the full load performance of each module using load banks – typical burn in is 4 hours at rated KW load (hint: infrared inspections of all connections).

  • Measure and verify the efficiency in the full operating range at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%..........

  • Verify system redundancy under design load levels.

  • Verify failure modes (under-voltage transfers, bypass transfers, over load shutdown).

  • Verify isolation modes for concurrent maintenance.

Assuring you get the reliability and efficiency you pay for!


Questions

Questions? another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss

Richard L. Sawyer

518-337-2049

[email protected]


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