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OOAD. Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology. Today’s Discussion. Background – Why OO is hot OO Methodology – Java Factory Approach Hands on application of CRC Methodology Informal Questions anytime Food and Drink anytime. Object Oriented Headlines.

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology

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Today’s Discussion

  • Background – Why OO is hot

  • OO Methodology – Java Factory Approach

  • Hands on application of CRC Methodology

  • Informal

    • Questions anytime

    • Food and Drink anytime

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Object Oriented Headlines

“Object-Oriented Technology Ventures Into the Real World”

“IBM unveils new object-oriented middleware”

“Expo to serve up object-oriented products”

“Object-Oriented is Here to Stay”

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Motivation For OOAD

Traditional Methodologies are broken because…

  • They haven’t solved problems of quality and timeliness.

  • They separates data from procedures making software reusability more difficult.

  • They don’t work well in our non-linear world.

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Linear vs. Non-linear



Page 1

Page 2

Step 1

Step 2

Page 3

Page 4

Step 3

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OOAD Vs. Traditional Approach

  • Process is less rigorous

    • Analysis Paralysis

  • Process is more fluid

    • Waterfall vs. Onion

  • No definitive stopping point

    • How many iterations?

  • More Trial and Error…

    “I failed my way to success.”

    Thomas Edison

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OOAD Methodology Roots

  • Unified Modeling Language(UML)

    • Use Cases

    • Class Diagrams

  • Sun Microsystems Java factory

    • CRC Methodology

      • Class

      • Responsibility

      • Collaboration

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Defining the Process

  • Determine the Requirements

  • Identify the Classes and Objects

  • Describe the Object Collaborations and the classes

  • Sketch the User Interface

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Diagram of OOAD

Class Diagram



Identify Classes & Objects

Describe Collaboration

Sketch Interface


Interface Sketch


CRC Cards

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Determining Requirements

  • Summary Paragraph

    • Define general approach to solving problem

    • Emphasize the what and not the how

    • Describe all major functions(operations/methods)

    • Define boundaries

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Identifying Classes and Objects

  • CRC Card Preparation

    • Class(data attributes)

    • Responsibility(Message response)

    • Collaboration(Class interaction)

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Class Definition

  • Classes are the templates or blueprints for objects

  • Classes define the attributes and behavior(methods) for objects

  • Objects contain the data and the methods

  • Objects are the nouns of the Object Oriented world

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So how do you define Classes??

1) Read Problem Summary statement for nouns and noun phrases which may be physical objects, concepts, categories of objects or attributes of other objects. Create a list of all of these items.

2) Review list for Class candidates. Transfer classes to CRC card.

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Noun Phrases

  • Renter Application

  • Bugs

  • Inventory

  • User

  • Message

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Transitioning Nouns to Classes

  • Not always easy

  • Iterative

  • Experience

  • Steps…

    • Logical Groupings and Leveling

    • Identify Implied Classes

    • Eliminate noise(primitives, attributes, messages)

“Design Decisions have no obvious right and wrong answers.”

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Renter Application





Logical Groupings/Leveling

Implied Classes

Noise elimination

Noun Phrases Class Steps

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CRC Card - Front

Class: Renter



(Front of Card)

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Defining Responsibilities

  • Use Problem Statement to identify verbs

  • Logical group and organize action items

  • Match Method to Class

  • Adjust for any omissions

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Track Inventory

Rent Bug

Decrease Inventory

Return Bug

Increase Inventory

Display Message

Logical Grouping


Match Method to Class

Method Verbs Identification

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Rent Bug

Return Bug

Display Message


Rent Bug

Return Bug

Supply Message

Bug Rental Methods

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Describing Collaboration

  • Develop Use-case scenarios

    • Sequence of related events

  • Walk Through Use-cases

    • Identify message exchanges

    • Identify missed Classes

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Identify Use-Case Scenarios

  • Customer Rents a Bug

    • ) Customer enters request for bug

    • ) Lender checks inventory for bug availability

    • ) If inventory is greater than zero

      • Inventory is decreased by one

      • Bug is made available to Customer

      • Message is sent to Customer from Lender

    • ) If inventory is zero, error message is sent to customer from Lender

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Now it’s your turn…Develop Use-Case for Bug Returns

  • Customer returns bug

  • Lender increases inventory

  • Lender sends message to Customer

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CRC Card - Front

Class: Renter






Rent Bug

Return Bug

Display Message

(Front of Card)

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Identifying Attributes

  • Characteristics of Class

  • Adjectives of the Object Oriented World

  • Inventory Example

    • Bug ID

    • Bug Description

    • Bug Version

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Your turn again…Develop some common attributes for the Renter

  • Customer Name

  • Customer Address

  • Customer Status

  • Customer Rentals

  • Customer Balance

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CRC Card - Back


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Developing a Class Diagram

Class Name



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CRC Adjustments

  • Create new CRC cards

  • Trash invalid CRC cards

  • Challenge yourself

    • Not a cookbook

    • Process is not magic;requires critical thinking skills

  • Iterate!

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Next Step...

  • Onion Peeling(aka Iterate)

  • Evolve From What to How

    • From abstract to detailed functionality

    • Define Data Access

    • Define Physical environment