v 0050 of 'Geologic Resources' by Greg Pouch at 2013-11-25 18:46:57 LastSavedBeforeThis 2011-04-12 09:43:10 22Resources.ppt
3 Amounts of Earth Resources Used Annually in US
5 Vocabulary Diagrams
6 Mineral Economics in one over-simplified lesson
7 Reserve Depletion
Graphs ( 8 Chart of crude oil prices since 1861; 9 Crude oil prices since 1861 ; 10 Price of Oil vs. Time ; 11 US Proven Oil Reserves for 20th Century ;12 US Proven Oil Reserves for 20th Century ;13 Oil reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios ; 14 Oil reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios )
15 Classification by Use and Economics
16 Classification by Geologic Origin
17 Sedimentary Processes > Organic Remains
18 Sedimentary Processes > … > Fossil Fuels > Coal
19 Sedimentary Processes>…>Fossil Fuels > Petroleum
20 Sedimentary Processes>…>Fossil Fuels > Petroleum
21 Sedimentary Processes
22 Sedimentary Processes>Weathering
23 Igneous Processes
25 Hydrothermal/Metasomatic Fluids
26 Hydrothermal Diagrams
27 Plate Tectonics
28 Plate Tectonics Map
29 Divergent Boundaries
30 Convergent Boundaries
31 Greenstone Belts
32 Mineral exploration
Geologic-total="Supply" is the total amount on Earth.
Resources are subset of Supply.
Reserves are subset of Resources.
Some stuff already extracted would not be profitable now, so would not be reserves, maybe not even resources.
Banded Iron Formation
Increasing the value of a mineral usually increases its econ-supply (reserves). Increasing the cost of a mineral usually leads to less being found and developed and decreases its econ-supply (reserves).
There is almost always a significant lag-time between starting a mining operation and initial delivery, so there are often dramatic short-term fluctuations in price super-imposed on an overall downward trend in price for most minerals.
There are several ways to deplete (reduce) reserves. (This assumes no recycling).
Generally, the opposites will increase reserves.
Improved exploration models, exploration techniques, and improved extraction techniques also increase reserves.
See http://sun.iwu.edu/~gpouch/geo101/WorldAndUSOilReservesAndProduction.htm for examples of US and World Oil Reserves 'decline'
Petroleum Prices from BP's Statistical Review of World Energy 2013 at
BP's Petroleum Price vs Time
Petroleum Prices from BP's Statistical Review of World Energy 2008 at http://www.bp.com/productlanding.do?categoryId=6929&contentId=7044622
US Proven Oil Reserves for 20th-21st Century
Data from http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/xls/PET_CRD_PRES_DCU_NUS_A.xls
US Proved Oil Reserves are from US Dept. Energy’s Energy Information Agency, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_crd_pres_dcu_NUS_a.htm
Price of oil is from last year’s Statistical Review from BP http://www.bp.com/downloads.do?categoryId=9003093&contentId=7005944
Reduced compounds (hydrocarbons, lipids, and such) can be preserved if the organic matter (dead organism or fecal matter or leaves…) is deposited under reducing conditions. If slightly more oxidizing conditions, reduced organic matter like sugars and lipids might be rapidly eaten, but other constituents, such as phosphate or nitrate, may accumulate. Under fully-oxygenated conditions, only indigestible constituents (calcite or silica shells…) are likely to accumulate. Organic-remains ores include phosphate rock and limestone, and fossil fuels.
Phosphate accumulation is associated with oceanic upwelling (cold, oxygen and nutrient rich bottom waters coming to the surface, as happens off Peru). Under such conditions, there is a great profusion of life, and consequently death. Organic remains (soft-body parts, bones, fecal matter) sinks to the bottom. The great abundance of incoming organic matter may overwhelm the ability of bottom organisms to consume this rain of food, and some goes undigested. Under anaerobic conditions, the reduced organic matter remains. Under slightly more oxidizing conditions, the reduced organic matter gets consumed, but the phosphate remains. Under normal oxidizing conditions, the phosphate gets consumed or dissolved into seawater.
Source (this is an oil shale)
Weathering can produce ores, by what it removes or what it deposits nearby.