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Geologic Processes. Geological Processes. Tectonics Rocks bend and break (folding and faulting). Volcanism Rocks melt and explode. Erosion and surface processes Surfaces flatten out: mountains crumble and holes are filled in. Mass wasting (gravity action) Wind action Water action

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Geological processes
Geological Processes

  • Tectonics

    • Rocks bend and break (folding and faulting).

  • Volcanism

    • Rocks melt and explode.

  • Erosion and surface processes

    • Surfaces flatten out: mountains crumble and holes are filled in.

      • Mass wasting (gravity action)

      • Wind action

      • Water action

  • Impact Cratering (external)

    • Bodies from space hit the ground, making a hole.


Tectonics -Folding

  • When rocks are squashed they will compress and bend away from the direction of maximum pressure



Wrinkle ridges on the moon
Wrinkle Ridges on the Moon

  • Cooling rocks contract, the shrinkage causes folding and ridges form



Tectonics faulting
Tectonics -Faulting

  • Extension Faults -crust moves apart, makes a larger area.

  • Compression Faults -crust moves together, makes smaller area.

  • Strike-slip Faults

    -crust moves sideways,

    no gain or loss of area


Volcanism

Volcanism

Rocks melt and explode



Volcanic processes
Volcanic Processes

  • Rocks melt and explode.

  • 2 components: lava, gasses

  • Lavas - variable viscosity,depending on chemistry

  • Low viscosity range of viscosity High viscosity

    (runny lava) (gooey, sticky lava)

    Low gas content High gas

    Result: Result:

    Low broad shapes range of volcanoes Tall cone shapes

    Volcanic Shield Cinder Stratovolcanoes Floods Volcanoes cones






Olympus mons martian shield volcano
Olympus MonsMartian Shield Volcano

  • Note the broad shield shape and the central cauldera






Mt st helens pre 1980 eruption 1986 eruption
Mt St Helenspre-1980 eruption 1986 eruption


Mt st helens
Mt St Helens

More tytpical eruption Oct 1st & 5th 2004




Soufri re hills monserrat 1995
Soufrière Hills, Monserrat 1995 engulfing the tourist facility.

Southern half of island evacuated and capital city lost


Alternative materials carbonatites
Alternative Materials: Carbonatites engulfing the tourist facility.



Erosion and surface processes
Erosion and Surface Processes engulfing the tourist facility.

  • Surfaces flatten out: mountains crumble and holes are filled in. The processes that carry out erosion each show characteristic patterns:

  • Mass wasting (gravity action)- land slides

  • Wind action- sand dunes, wind streaks

  • Water action- river channels, ocean shores, glacial erosion


Mass wasting on the asteroid eros
Mass Wasting on the Asteroid Eros engulfing the tourist facility.


Sand Dunes in the Sahara engulfing the tourist facility.

(imaged by the Space Shuttle)


Sand Dunes in the Namib engulfing the tourist facility.

(imaged by the Space Shuttle)


Sand dunes on mars
Sand Dunes on Mars engulfing the tourist facility.


Sand Dunes on Mars engulfing the tourist facility.


Wind Streaks on Venus engulfing the tourist facility.


Water Channels on Mars engulfing the tourist facility.


Water channels on mars
Water Channels on Mars engulfing the tourist facility.


Cape cod earth
Cape Cod, Earth engulfing the tourist facility.

  • Material is carried to the oceans and dumped.

  • Gains are ground up by pounding waves.

  • THIS IS UNIQUE TO EARTH


Impact cratering
Impact Cratering engulfing the tourist facility.

  • Bodies from space hit the ground, making a hole.

    (the only external process -it comes to the planet from the outside)

  • The size of the hole depends on the energy of the impact.

    • A small, slow-moving, ice-ball makes a small hole.

    • A massive, fast moving, rock makes a large hole.


Imbrium Basin engulfing the tourist facility.

Moon


Valhalla Crater, engulfing the tourist facility.

Callisto

Largest crater in the Solar System


Increasing size increasing complexity
Increasing Size: Increasing Complexity engulfing the tourist facility.

Complex Craters

Simple Crater

Simple Peak Peak-Ring Multi-Ring

  • Small craters are simple bowl shapes

  • Increasing impact energy creates larger holes and more ripple shapes called complex craters


Crater dating
Crater Dating engulfing the tourist facility.

  • Solar System debris falls onto planets at a regular rate, making craters.

  • The number of holes on a surface is a measure of how long it has been exposed to impacts.

  • Impact craters can be destroyed by the three internal processes (tectonics, volcanism, erosion)

  • Surfaces with few craters have active processes destroying the craters. (called YOUNG surfaces)

  • Surfaces with lots of craters have no active processes & are undisturbed. (OLD surfaces)


Young v s old
Young v.s Old engulfing the tourist facility.


Active v s inactive
Active v.s Inactive engulfing the tourist facility.


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