Geologic processes
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Geologic Processes. Geological Processes. Tectonics Rocks bend and break (folding and faulting). Volcanism Rocks melt and explode. Erosion and surface processes Surfaces flatten out: mountains crumble and holes are filled in. Mass wasting (gravity action) Wind action Water action

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Geologic Processes

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Geologic processes

Geologic Processes


Geological processes

Geological Processes

  • Tectonics

    • Rocks bend and break (folding and faulting).

  • Volcanism

    • Rocks melt and explode.

  • Erosion and surface processes

    • Surfaces flatten out: mountains crumble and holes are filled in.

      • Mass wasting (gravity action)

      • Wind action

      • Water action

  • Impact Cratering (external)

    • Bodies from space hit the ground, making a hole.


Geologic processes

Tectonics -Folding

  • When rocks are squashed they will compress and bend away from the direction of maximum pressure


Folding in the andes mtn s s america

Folding in the Andes Mtn.s, S. America


Wrinkle ridges on the moon

Wrinkle Ridges on the Moon

  • Cooling rocks contract, the shrinkage causes folding and ridges form


Ridges on europa

Ridges on Europa


Tectonics faulting

Tectonics -Faulting

  • Extension Faults -crust moves apart, makes a larger area.

  • Compression Faults -crust moves together, makes smaller area.

  • Strike-slip Faults

    -crust moves sideways,

    no gain or loss of area


Volcanism

Volcanism

Rocks melt and explode


Geologic processes

Generic Volcano Structure


Volcanic processes

Volcanic Processes

  • Rocks melt and explode.

  • 2 components: lava, gasses

  • Lavas - variable viscosity,depending on chemistry

  • Low viscosity range of viscosity High viscosity

    (runny lava) (gooey, sticky lava)

    Low gas content High gas

    Result: Result:

    Low broad shapes range of volcanoes Tall cone shapes

    Volcanic Shield Cinder Stratovolcanoes Floods Volcanoes cones


Volcanic floods very low viscosity

Volcanic Floods -VERY low Viscosity


Hawaiian effusive eruption

Hawaiian Effusive eruption


Geologic processes

Shield Volcano


Geologic processes

Shield Volcano’s Cauldera


Olympus mons martian shield volcano

Olympus MonsMartian Shield Volcano

  • Note the broad shield shape and the central cauldera


Cinder cones sp crater arizona

Cinder Cones- SP Crater, Arizona


Cinder cones sp crater arizona1

Cinder Cones- SP Crater, Arizona


Stratovolcanoes

Stratovolcanoes


Geologic processes

Mayon Stratovolcano, Phillipines


Mt st helens pre 1980 eruption 1986 eruption

Mt St Helenspre-1980 eruption 1986 eruption


Mt st helens

Mt St Helens

More tytpical eruption Oct 1st & 5th 2004


Geologic processes

  • Many cities are built below stratovolcanoes

    e.g Seattle and Mt Rainier


Geologic processes

  • This eruption from Mt Etna in 1983 shows lava flows engulfing the tourist facility.


Soufri re hills monserrat 1995

Soufrière Hills, Monserrat 1995

Southern half of island evacuated and capital city lost


Alternative materials carbonatites

Alternative Materials: Carbonatites


Geologic processes

  • Alternative Materials: Sulfur

  • Spacecraft observe live sulfur volcanoes on Io


Erosion and surface processes

Erosion and Surface Processes

  • Surfaces flatten out: mountains crumble and holes are filled in. The processes that carry out erosion each show characteristic patterns:

  • Mass wasting (gravity action)- land slides

  • Wind action- sand dunes, wind streaks

  • Water action- river channels, ocean shores, glacial erosion


Mass wasting on the asteroid eros

Mass Wasting on the Asteroid Eros


Geologic processes

Sand Dunes in the Sahara

(imaged by the Space Shuttle)


Geologic processes

Sand Dunes in the Namib

(imaged by the Space Shuttle)


Sand dunes on mars

Sand Dunes on Mars


Geologic processes

Sand Dunes on Mars


Geologic processes

Wind Streaks on Venus


Geologic processes

Water Channels on Mars


Water channels on mars

Water Channels on Mars


Cape cod earth

Cape Cod, Earth

  • Material is carried to the oceans and dumped.

  • Gains are ground up by pounding waves.

  • THIS IS UNIQUE TO EARTH


Impact cratering

Impact Cratering

  • Bodies from space hit the ground, making a hole.

    (the only external process -it comes to the planet from the outside)

  • The size of the hole depends on the energy of the impact.

    • A small, slow-moving, ice-ball makes a small hole.

    • A massive, fast moving, rock makes a large hole.


Geologic processes

Imbrium Basin

Moon


Geologic processes

Valhalla Crater,

Callisto

Largest crater in the Solar System


Increasing size increasing complexity

Increasing Size: Increasing Complexity

Complex Craters

Simple Crater

Simple Peak Peak-Ring Multi-Ring

  • Small craters are simple bowl shapes

  • Increasing impact energy creates larger holes and more ripple shapes called complex craters


Crater dating

Crater Dating

  • Solar System debris falls onto planets at a regular rate, making craters.

  • The number of holes on a surface is a measure of how long it has been exposed to impacts.

  • Impact craters can be destroyed by the three internal processes (tectonics, volcanism, erosion)

  • Surfaces with few craters have active processes destroying the craters. (called YOUNG surfaces)

  • Surfaces with lots of craters have no active processes & are undisturbed. (OLD surfaces)


Young v s old

Young v.s Old


Active v s inactive

Active v.s Inactive


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